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Lecture 2

Full Lecture 2 Notes

9 pages62 viewsWinter 2011

Department
Sociology
Course Code
SOC346H5
Professor
Reza Barmaki
Lecture
2

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Scientific Approach to World and The Problem of Order
Criminology
The scientific approach to the study of crime and deviance
Forms of behaviour
Science
Methodic investigation
Rule-bound:
oData collection
oHypothesis testing
oFormulating theory
What are other approaches? How is a scientific approach different from them?
Religious Approach (pre-scientific/unscientific)
Premises of all religions:
oA. There are supernatural forces
Beyond ordinary human powers
oB. Control/intervene natural and social processes
oC. This can be direct or indirect through humans or animals
oD. Some for good and some for bad
Crime/deviance
The First Murder: Cain kills Abel
Why humans commit evil acts (crime)?
o1. Influenced by evil forces
o2. Their own nature:
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Wicked (sin)
Weak (easily tempted)
Demonology
A branch of theology
Study of malevolent superhuman beings
Demons or beliefs about them
How they influence humans to act
Punishment for such acts
Trial by Ordeal
Method of determining guilt/innocence
Accused was asked to perform painful and/or impossible tasks
Science
Systematic observation, testing, data collection
Why did Science become the predominant way?
Modernity & Rise of Science
Three main components
oIndustrialization
oUrbanization
oCapitalism
Biological and Physiological Theories of Crime
Born Criminal Theory
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Premises:
Criminality is inborn
It shows itself in the physical appearance of the criminal
These signs can be used to identify criminals
Physiognomy
Concentrated on facial features and their supposed connections to personality
traits
Compared to what?
A construct
Racially biased
Racial & class hatred
Lower classes/races:
oLow intelligence
oCriminality
oDegeneration (physical & mental)
Franz Joseph Gall (1758-1828, German)
Phrenology
Brain: location of our personality traits
Each part contains certain traits
oCombativeness
oFriendliness
oDeviousness
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