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Lecture 8

Full Lecture 8 Notes

14 pages102 viewsWinter 2011

Department
Sociology
Course Code
SOC346H5
Professor
Reza Barmaki
Lecture
8

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Chicago School
Social Disorganization Theory
The US: Early 20th century
Rapid use of American brand of capitalism
oValue system: self-interest at the expense of collectivism
Immigration and cultural pluralism
Urbanization and value conflict
Life in the City
Anonymity
Decreasing primary relations (direct, informal, face-to-face)
Increasing secondary relations (indirect, formal, impersonal)
People care less about others
Dont want to get involved
Less surveillance
Chicago Slum 1915
Concentration in certain parts of cities
Problems:
oSlums
oPoverty
oCrime
Need to understand and control it
How to understand and Remedy all this?
Ecology
Borrowed from natural science (biology)
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Ecology: Organisms relations with their environment & each other
Reflects degree scarcity of resources (food, mate…)
Results in Competition or cooperation between different species
A natural habitat
A natural system
All parts are connected and have adjusted to each other
Equilibrium is maintained between several species
These species have adjusted to each other
There is a system of predator-prey
Keeps numbers of each specie in check
What happens if you introduce new specie?
Equilibrium is disturbed
Other species do not know how to deal with them
These are not their natural enemies
Either they adjust or equilibrium is destroyed
Human Ecology
These ideas were applied to cities
Immigration: introduction of a new species
Disturbed equilibrium (social order)
How is social order achieved in such ethnic diversity?
Processes involved in creation of a new equilibrium
Invasion
Segregation
Conflict
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Dominance
Accommodation
Succession
Symbiosis
Dominance (through vilification)
Vancouver
Chinese community early 1900
At First: Labour was needed for railroad
Later: not needed
Should be controlled
oHead tax
Concentric Zone Theory (Robert Ezra Park and Ernest W. Burgess)
Cities are natural environments
Ecological processes operate
Processes become intense as population grows
Competition for scarce resources
People with similar resources concentrate in the same area
Rich, middle, poor
Poor areas disorganized: poverty, crime, value conflicts, turn-over of people
Clifford Shaw and Henry D. McKay (Shaw & McKay)
Delinquency was not caused at the individual level
It is a normal response by normal individuals to abnormal conditions
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