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Lecture 9

Full Lecture 9 Notes

17 pages91 viewsWinter 2011

Department
Sociology
Course Code
SOC346H5
Professor
Reza Barmaki
Lecture
9

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Chapter 8 cont.
Cognitive Dissonance Theory
Experiencing uncomfortable emotions and feelings
oGuilt, anger, frustration, embarrassment
Three causes
o1. Holding two contradictory ideas
There is a God; There is no God
Resolution 1: Eliminating one idea
Resolution 2: Abandoning the idea together
No concern with God at all
o2. Discrepancy between beliefs and actions
A. Changing the practice to match the belief
B. Denying the discrepancy in favour of the practice through
justifications, rationalization
o3. Conflict between reality and positive beliefs about ones personality (self-
concept)
A. I am a smart person
Reality: Got C on all your tests
B. I am a brave person
Reality: Ran away at the first sight of trouble
C. I am attractive
Reality: Mirror says otherwise
D. I am a good person
E. I am wise
oResolutions:
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A. Rationalization in favour of the belief
Exam was too hard
Lectures were unclear
TA hates me
I wasnt feeling well
B. Changing self-concepts to negative ones
I am just dumb
Social Control Paradigm
Why dont majority of people deviate? Why do people conform to social order?
Fundamental Assumptions
Anyone can commit crime
Motives for delinquency are diverse
There is no one or few dominant motives
Concentrating on motive is useless
Emphasis should be on forces that restrain people
Push people towards conformity
When they are absent, deviance occurs
Emphasis on: Family, socialization, internalized beliefs, social ties
Edward A. Ross (1866-1951)
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Argued:
oIndividuals’ beliefs are the strongest influences on their behaviour
oIndividuals get their beliefs from family and community
oThese two are cornerstones of social stability
Ivan Nye: Four Types of Control
1. Direct
oPunishing antisocial acts
oRewarding compliance
oBy: Parents, authorities
2. Indirect
oIdentification with law-abiding significant others
oExample: Avoiding antisocial acts in order to avoid parental
disappointment
3. Internal
oDevelopment of conscience
oForce of guilt & shame
4. Control through needs satisfaction
oIf all of an individuals needs are met, there is no point in criminal
activity
Jackson Toby
Uncommitted youth are candidates for gang socialization
Introduced the concept of stakes in conformity
Anyone could be tempted into delinquency
But most refuse because they know they have too much to lose
Few stakes in conformity is likely to result in antisocial activity
Containment Theory (Walter Reckless)
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