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Zaheer Baber

SOC354 Global Sociology January 15, 2013 C. Wright Mills -struggling in 50’s with two broad strands that were suffocating sociology 1. Statistical -he knew there was a role for it -a clear cut formula, in a very limited sense -if you ask only these questions, limited to the quantitative questions you could ask -can’t really quantify it, must interpret 2.Theoretical -concepts in attempt to mimic natural sciences -able to come up with clear cut answers -explanations of the world -he argued that sociology needs to have big picture accounts in as lucid ways as possible -presenting it in a way, that anyone who reads it, will know what is going on Slavoj Zizek -”rockstar” of social sciences -critical take on what is going on in the world Theories/models of “Development” 1. Modernization Theory -by Walt Rostow -an umbrella term called modernization theory -way of looking at the world -”The Stages of Economic Growth” was his book, a non communist manifesto was a subtitle -try to argue that how society has developed economically, politically, etc. they all go through similar stages -this is an internalist account -looking at bounded nation states, eg. USA, Germany, etc. -ex. looking at human embrio, all go through same stages, adaption of theory on to society, all societies are dominated by culture -Pre-conditions for take-off -education, science, banking, modern state -Take-Off -expansion, organization -Age of High mass consumption -urbanization, white collar work higher than blue collar -completely and totally ignores history, ignores that fact that these institutions were built in history, the amount of people engaged in agriculture is dropping, because of technology, etc. 2. Dependency Theory -Andre Gunder Frank -says Rostows argument has little to do with moving from one stage to another, he says if you look at history, and look at how the world has been carved up, look at the linkages at how the world was made and transformed, you begin to see that certain economies, their institutions/social structures have been completely transformed to colonial countries, they are serving not the needs of particular society itself, the whole world has been made in a way, that allows home coun- tries to be developed because of the underdevelopment of other countries. -counter position to modernization theory -the development compared to underdevelopment what is the cause of underdevelopment, if you are missing the colonial con- nection, you are missing a big part 3. World Systems Theory -Immanuel Wallerstein -core/ semi-periphery/ periphery global networks -nation state not the unit of analysis -critique of dependency theory: the problem Wallerstain says, is that dependent theorists are locked into one kind of development, accept development with high economic growth -tries to redefine development in many different ways -to think about the world with clear cut boundaries, simply doesn’t work -must think of the world as one whole system -must change optic, the whole world is interconnected -the core countries, dominant countries, that are engaged -he talks about other countries that are at the lowest end -talks about countries that are rich countries but not core countries -ex. singapore -think about the world as a multi level orchestra -Karl Polanyi -markets are historical -have been embedded in other institutions, embedded in society -markets emerge at a historical point in time, in terms of minimum wage, benefits, etc. - “double movement” - “the welfare state”
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