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lec 2- jan 17.docx

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Shyon Baumann

SOC284- Lecture 2 January 17, 2014 Censorship Henry Reichman (2001) "censorship is the removal, suppression, or restricted circulation of literary, artistic, or educational materials- of images, ideas and information- on the grounds that these are morally or otherwise objectionable in light of standarsd applied by the censor" ^^refer to this as "classic censorship" questioned raised by this definition: who can be the censor?- media (i.e. facebook, tv channels, websites and radio stations all censor what will be shown/heard on their networks, parents) how much suppression counts as censorship?- what counts as speech or expression? expression in print: books, newspapers, magazines, internet, yard signs, etc. spoken expession: at work, personal vs. public, highly regulated environments such as schools marketing: advertising, packaging t-shirts art and entertainment; movies, music, tv shows, photographs, etc. political actions; campaign donations, flag burning Key moments in American censorship 1791- first amendment to constitution 1934- communications act establishes FCC (federal communication ... responsible for obscene, indecent (socially unacceptable) and profane (swearing) material 1952: Burstyn vs. Wilson- films critical of religion were not allowed; state film boards reponsible for reviewing films supreme court argued that freedom of expressoin should be extended to movies thus other art forms like music 1966: Freedom of information act- how censorship is kept to a minimum 1972: Miller v. California- established definition of what is obscene Key points about canadian censorship 1982: Section 1. The Charter guarantees rights and freedoms set out in it subject only to such reasonable limits prescribed by law as can be demonstrably justified in a free and democratic society Section 2. Everyone has the following fundamental freedoms: freedom of conscience and religion freedom of thought, belief, opinion, and expression, including freedom of the press and other media of communication freedom of peaceful assembly freedom of association Section 1 sets limits on rights guaranteed by Section 2 hate speech (willful promotion of hatred; seeks to get people to hate another idenfiable person/group of people) is criminal in canada but legal in US CRTC (Canadian equivalent of FCC) does not explicitly regulate broadcast content for obscenity canada Border Services Agency enforces censorship of obscenity i.e. shipments of magazines or dvds would be confiscated (created in US and imported into Canada) sharp decline in their role in this regard (mainly due to the internet because the same material is readily available online) Obscenity is defined differently than in the US Canadian criminal code- obscene material contains undue exploitation of sex and crime or horror or cruelty or violence; specific focus on mixing of sex and violence in determining what is obscene (based on presumption that when audience is exposed to mixture of sex and violence, they develop harmful attitudes and behaviours/ more accepting of the behaviour)- this becomes specially problematic for women as they are generally the targets of such att
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