Lecture 10 20140405
• Media play a role in providing the information for election campaign to strategies and persuade voters
• Political advertising is relied upon to reach voters more than any other means, and the most important advertising channel is
television. Television advertising is expensive, and so politicians need donors to give a lot of money in order to run a successful
campaign. What is the effect of this dependency chain?
• As fewer people watch television commercials, Internet channels and social media become more important for elections
• Costs money to conduct
• There is a recognized problem with the link between money and politics. And legislation is required to regulate the
influence of money in elections.
Canada Elections Act of 2000
• Limits on amounts that parties and candidates can spend in an election cycle
• Limits on amounts that third parties can spend on advertising
• Every broadcaster in Canada is required to make available for purchase by registered political parties six and onehalf hours
(390 minutes) of airtime during a federal election.
Not only do political messages come from political people
o Third parties can also influence parties and support parties financially—union.
o These organizations tend to benefit the people that are involved within them
Bill C24: Act to Amend the Canada Elections Act and the Income Tax Act (2003)
• Corporations, associations, and trade unions are prohibited from making financial donations to registered political parties and
leadership contestants; however, they may contribute an annual total of $1,000 to candidates, electoral district associations, and
• Individuals are not permitted to contribute more than $5,000 annually to registered parties, candidates, nomination contestants,
or constituency associations. o Important contrast with the US, as they try to limit the amount people can donate to politicians and parties but because
of the concept of expression these donations were interpreted as political speech.
o The limits were considered unconstitutional—so there is a much stronger correlation between money and politics
Technology’s Role in Creating Intellectual Property Questions
• The topic of intellectual property has become increasingly controversial recently because of technological advances in media.
• Two resulting changes: 1) conceptions of what property and copyright are, and 2) who has the power to get their way in the face
of resistance, and how that relates to our sense of what is “fair”.
• What is theft?
o You own the right to access this product
• How can creative industries continue to produce content, remain creative, and remain profitable?
• How do we balance the best interests of society with the best interests of creators?
o Clearly society benefits for their own creative endeavors
Two Categories of Intellectual Property: WTO
1. Industrial property, which includes inventions (patents), trademarks, industrial designs, and geographic indications of source
2. Copyright, which includes literary and artistic works such as novels, poems and plays, films, musical works, artistic works such
as drawings, paintings, photographs and sculptures, and architectural designs.
Why Have Intellectual Property Protection?
• Copyright laws are in recognition of this protection and if people do not have that recognition they do not have the incentive to
• To encourage and reward innovation and creativity • Fair reward for creators
• Intangible nature of intellectual property requires different regulations for ownership and borrowing
• Trademark is a signifier for business services: 90’s Swoosh and registered trademark.
Why does copyright not last forever?
• From the American Constitution: “To promote the Progress of Science and useful Arts, by securing for limited Times to
Authors and Inventors the exclusive Right to their respective Writings and Discoveries.
• Society benefits when work enters the public domain, both for consuming the work and using it for further innovation.
• Copyright Act of 1790 established U.S. copyright with term of 14 years with 14year renewal
• Copyright Term Extension Act of 1998 extended terms to 95/120 years or life plus 70 years
The Associated Press, Published on Fri Jan 03 2014
CHICAGO—It’s the kind of puzzle that might have amused Sherlo