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SOC392H5 (23)
Dolderman (23)
Lecture

Race and Ethnicity.docx

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Department
Sociology
Course
SOC392H5
Professor
Dolderman
Semester
Fall

Description
Race and Ethnicity (no marginality and creativity on the final) - Marginalized individuals are socialized (primary) by one culture and then later by another culture (secondary) - these people tend to be more creative - their socialization is inconsistent How does Race and Ethnicity shape the distribution of Power and Resources in society? -race and ethnicity often focus on inequality – resources are divided along the lines of race and ethnicity -some people think that race and ethnicity are ascribed – you’re born with it and can’t change it -traits that you’re born with -sociology says race and ethnicity are socially constructed -consider greater importance for sociology than in biology -racial distinctions aren’t biologically given -some scientists believe we all belong to one race and this is in Africa -some people think we all come from one mother named Lucy who is from Africa Race: -is misused -some people think of race in connection with skin colour – terrible misue -the Caucassion race – white people or people of European background -some people label Jewish people as a race but they are an ethnic group -another misuse is nationality -the English racewrong -the human racewrong -not the way sociologists or biologists use the term race -Race – a category of people who have been singled out as superior or inferior on the basis of physical characteristics (a social construct) -racism – to be prejudiced against a socially defined group of people and to discriminate against them based on the so-called genetic inferiority of that group of individuals - the term racism is also misued - discrimination and prejudice isn’t always based on racial reasons -you can discriminate against people not just on race but also on religion, colour of hair, etc. -should be aware of the fact that racism is the discrimination against people who show a “genetic inferiority” Race biology of society: -race is a social construct -race matters historically because it has been associated with inequality -the group defined as genetically inferior experiences prejudice -scapegoating - when people falsely blame a disadvantaged group for problems of their own becoming Problems with Biological Race: - when you look at white people, there’s an enormous range of skin colours; same with black people - this system of classifying people originated in Europe during colonialism - many people don’t fit this system – people from Asia, Thailand, etc. -another problem is the fiction of pure race -sociologists use race because the perception of race affects the lives of people profoundly -it remains a social category -but it lacks a biological foundation -racial purity is thought to exist but this is fiction -most of us are genetically mixed, one way or another -some places have more biological similarity than other – ie. Japan: has been isolated from the rest of the world for a long period of time and today it still doesn’t have immigration -there is a small Chinese and Korean population, but for the most part Japan is isolated from the larger society -even so, the Japanese are not a race, biologically speaking -why are people mixed? -migration -can also have immigration – moving into a county -emigration – moving out of the country -this is increasing with the modern world -intermarriage is also increasing so these make it impossible to draw biological lines between people -another problem of race: genetic variation (height, size, etc.) within groups is greater than genetic variation between groups -so when you compare 2 groups, the genetic variation is smaller in a between group comparison than within a particular group - this puts a big hole in the notion of race being biological How do we get race? -society arbitrarily selects certain traits -race is based on arbitrary traits – ie. you could form race on the basis of eye colour -but when we look at the entire range of genetic characteristics, the genetic biological sectioning of race falls to pieces -this means that the concept of race is social rather than biological -thus people are pinned with a racial tag by society and it is unjustified -Tiger Woods: -has an interesting racial background Aboriginal White Black Chinese Thai Father Mother Tiger (Cablinasian) -Woods actually invented the term -Consciousness of kind – can lead to social conflict -people are conscious of belonging to a particular group that has been socially defined -this segregates populations and can create an insider (I belong to thins group and the rest of society belongs to another group) -this can lead to social conflict Types of Racism: -classifying yourself as a part of a race is incorrect -prejudice is an attitude, discrimination is a behaviour -Institutional racism: -this is genuine racism -you can find this in apartheid societies like South Africa and the southern part of the United States -this is when the government and the state develops laws which discriminate against people based on their socially defined race -the most prominent laws are the laws of segregation which segregate people based on race -make intermarriage illegal -Systematic racism: -when you establish policies that discriminate against certain groups (ie. based on size – discriminating against small people) -ex. Toronto police force said that you had to have a certain size (height and weight) before you were accepted (this was a long time ago) -this left out women and certain ethnic groups -police and firefighters are example of this -included groups that were larger and excluded groups that were smaller -Cycle of racism (figure 10.1, pg 280) -physical markers are used to distinguish certain groups -this creates inequality based on race -ex. Colonialism and slavery -the next step is to provide different social (ie. working) conditions between subordinates and superordinates -this creates behavioural differences -perceptions of different behaviours leads to stereotypes - stereotype = to make an evaluation of somebody based on that individual’s membership in a socially defined group Ethnicity: -ethnicity is usually a cultural phenomenon, but race (socially defined) can be a part of it -ethnic groups are made up of people who have perceived cultural markers that are significant (ex. Dress and religion) -the cultural aspect of ethnicity  language, religion, customs, values -Just as physical distinctions don’t cause differences in the behaviour of various races, so cultural distinctions are often not by themselves the major source of differences in the behaviour of various ethnic groups -ethnic groups can experience prejudice and discrimination - Canadians, by and large, identify themselves with multiple identities -ethnic origins in Canada: -people who use multiple responses -about 20 million Canadians use multiple responses -ex. If you do a survey and ask who are you, not many people put just Canadian -if you write a multiple response, you would list different backgrounds -this shows that identity is important -many Canadians identify themselves as having multiple ethnic origins Ethnic traits: -religion, language, clothing, holidays -sense of community (ethnic members are aware that they belong to a particular group, and other members of society are aware too) -feelings of ethnocentrism (is widespread; “the culture (or subculture) that I belong to is the best one”, “have the most favoured set of attributes compared to other subcultures”, my people are harder working, more moral, and better in every way than other people”) - ethnocentrism is associated with ethnic identity - ethnic traits are ascribed at birth; you don’t choose it, you’re born in a certain ethnic group -sometimes ethnicity is associated with territory -ex. Quebec: home of the French Canadians -you can also have residential segregation – you find this across North America -certain areas of the city are monopolized by certain ethnic groups -ex. Greek along the Danforth (therefore it is a Greek area) -this can be voluntary or involuntary -in an apartheid society, certain groups must by law live in certain areas and places -cannot live in other areas because another group lives in that area -in Canada, the residential segregation is more voluntary -people choose to live in an area where there are people of their ethnic group -this is mostly seen when people first immigrate to Canada -people feel more comfortable living among people who speak the same language, eat the same food - residential segregation tends to occur along city centers - when their kids grow up, they move off into the suburbs – the suburbs are more multi-racial -they don’t find it as intimidating as their parents did -you can also network within your community for either b
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