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Definitions Chapter 1 Social solidarity: refers to (1) the degree to which a group members share beliefs and values and (2) the intensity and frequency of their interaction Social structures: are relatively stable patterns of social relations Microstructures: are the patterns of relatively intimate social relations formed during face-to-face interaction. Families, friendship circles, and work associations are all examples of microstructures Macrostructures: are overarching patterns of social relations that lie outside and above your circle of intimates and acquaintances. These include classes, bureaucracies, and power systems, such as patriarchy Patriarchy: is the traditional system of economic and political inequality between women and men Global structures: are patterns of social relations that lie outside and above the national level. They include international organizations, patterns of worldwide travel and communication, and the economic relations between countries Sociological imagination: is the quality if mind that enables a person to see the connection between personal troubles and social structures Scientific Revolution: began about 1150. It encouraged the view that sound conclusions about the workings of society must be based on solid evidence, not just on speculation Democratic Revolution: began about 1750. It suggested that people are responsible for organizing society and that human intervention can therefore solve social problems Industrial Revolution: often regarded as the most important event in world history since the development of agriculture and cities, refers to the rapid economic transformation that began in Britain in the 1780s. It involved the larger-scale application of science and technology to industrial processes, the creation of factories, and the formation of a working class Functionalism: stresses that human behaviour is governed by relatively stable social structures. It underlines how social structures maintain or undermine social stability. It emphasizes that social structures are based mainly on shared values or preferences. And it suggests that re-establishing equilibrium can best solve most social problems Dysfunctional consequences: are effects of social structures that create social instability Manifest functions: are visible and intended effects of social structures Latent functions: are invisible and unintended effects of social structures Conflict theory: generally focuses on large macrolevel structures and shows how major patterns of inequality in society produce social stability in some circumstances and social change in others Class conflict: is the struggle b/w classes to resist and overcome the opposition of other classes The Protestant ethic: is the belief that religious doubts can be reduced, and a state of grace ensured, if people work diligently and live ascetically. According to Weber, the Protestant work ethic had the unintended effect of increasing savings and investment and thus stimulating capitalist growth Symbolistic interactionism: focuses on interaction in microlevel settings and emphasizes that an adequate explanation of social behaviour requires understanding the subjective meanings people attach to their social circumstances Social constructionsim: argues that apparently natural or innate features of life are often sustained by social processes that vary historically and culturally Feminist theory: claims that patriarchy is at least as important as class inequality in determining a person’s opportunities in life. It holds male domination and female subordination are determined not by biological necessity but by structures of power and social convention. It examines the operation of patriarchy in both micro and macro settings. And it contends that existing patterns of gender inequality can and should by changed for the benefit of all members of society Postindustrial revolution: refers to the technology-driven shift from manufacturing to service industries and the consequences of that shift for virtually all human activities Globalization: is the process by which formerly separate economies, states, and cultures become tie together and people becoming increasingly aware of their growing interdependence Chapter 3 Culture: is the sum of practices, languages, symbols, beliefs, values, ideologies, and material objects that people create to deal w/ real-life problems. Cultures enable people to adapt to, and thrive in, their environments High culture: is culture consumed mainly by upper classes (opera, ballet, etc.) Popular culture (or mass culture): is culture consumed by all classes Abstraction: is the capacity to create general ideas or ways of thinking that are not linked to particular instances Symbols: are things that carry a particular meaning, including the components of language, mathematical notations, and signs. Symbols allow us to classify experience and generalize from it Cooperation: is the capacity to create a complex social life by establishing generally accepted ways of doing things and ideas about what us right and wrong Norms: are generally accepted ways of doing things Values: are ideas about what is right and wrong Production: is the human capacity to make and use tools. It improves our ability to take what we want from nature Material culture: comprises the tools and techniques that enable people to get tasks accomplished Non-material culture: is composed of symbols, norms, and other intangible elements Folkways: are the least important norms and they evoke the least severe punishment Mores: are core norms that most people believe are essential for the survival of their group or their society Taboos: are among the strongest norms. When someone violates a taboo it causes revulsion in the community and punishment is severe Ethnocentrism: is the tendency for a person to judge other cultures exclusively by the standards of his or her own Cultural relativism: is the belief that all cultures have equal value The rights revolution: is the process by which socially excluded groups stru
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