Lecture 8. 2 global gender violence i - women: global forces shaping violence against women, colonialism. The ideological construction of indigenous women as violate-able has underpinned genocidal policies against indigenous peoples from colony through the modern state throughout the americas . Spanish: globalization & spread of neoliberal ideology. International trade & economic restructuring: expanding global markets have led to economic restructuring at the local level, this has resulted in: Increases in the power of predatory elites: militarized and social elites. Increasing socio-economic inequality limited resources so become easier target and not able to take action: cannot react to situations of violence, expansion of shadow economies, narcoviolencia. They can be applied either supra-nationally or to groups and individuals within states. In practice: there are no common federal standards or measures of enforcement for hr codes, hr-based understandings of gender violence are universalist and treat customary cultural practices as backwards, ex.