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Bio210 endocrine 3.docx

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University of Toronto Mississauga
Robert Reisz

Bio210- lecture 27—The Endocrine System III Slide 2- hormones differ by release and feedback of hormone Slide 3- pancreas is exocrine (pancreatic duct—makes and release enzymes, release it back to small intestine and important for digestion) and endocrine (cell makes and releases hormones- not neurosecretory -good capillary supply in islets (clusters of endocrine cells; when release hormones, it has to go into the bloodstream, so a good capillary system is needed) slide 4- the last two hormones mentioned are very important for digestion -focusing on first two hormones today (glucagon, insulin) -can have convulsions/ death if too much/ too little glucogon - excess food and glucose is either stored as glycogen or lipids - we eat, digest, absorb, use some and store rest -store lipids in adipose (fat) tissue -glucagon works on liver tissue slide 5- both are polypeptides -glucagon- 29 aa polypeptide -insulin- 51 aa polypeptide—a dimer of an A- chain and b chain held together with disulphide bond -glucose is only energy brain can use, so control is vital -insulin being released and glucagon monitoring is happening all the time -glucose is very highly controlled slide 8- hormones often work as it is important to have more than one hormone; having one is not sufficient -need cocktails of hormones, released at the same time either working against or with each other -synergistic= additive slide 9-insulin and glucagon have opposite effects, same with pth and calcitonin -opposing to maintain a balance in hormones slide 10- effects are the same; synergistic: the two hormones, if working together, can produce a much greater response than adding the two hormones (sum of individual effects) -growth hormone: important with calcium -don’t worry about second example (didn’t learn about leptin yet) slide 12- the fou
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