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Lecture 4

October 20.docx


Department
Women and Gender Studies
Course Code
WGS200Y5
Professor
Karen Ruffle
Lecture
4

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October 20
Why is it that in the 20th century we have to have body projects
Use “I”
Reflecting on past experiences of your body
Ways in which you’ve managed your bodies
Feelings and experiences with ur body as a project
Forward thinking
Primary source – advertisement, magazine, tabloid magazine, elevision ads,
Cosmetics ads or packaging
Toys eg. Barbie
4 steps:
1. Assumption analysis – be aware of assumptions that we all make or being made in
the ad
Be able to challenge and critically question believes and values that are taught to us
2.Contextual awareness – acknowledging and looking at the ways our assumptions are
socially constructed and historically conditioned. What ahs led to this point to make us no
believe this or that.
everything is based on where you’re situated now both in time and in place, society or
culture.
e.g. belief in thin and slim bodies. Beauty standards have changed e.g. before bigger
women were more attractive : sign of maternity and sign of class
Now there’s a shift to control the body by changing and sliming it
3.imaginative speculation – is that how it actually has to be or is there another way for us
to imagine our culture and how we represent ourselves
4. Reflective skepticism – how do we question and rethink
Ethnocentrism – universal claim that is actually based on whiteness, very challenging for
persons of color to navigate in culture of white.
So pick one factor and find primary sources for it. And identify its body project
What do these say about race
How do they impact minorities who aren’t represented
Talk about heteronomty and racialization together through out the essay
Body size – both thin and fat
Pick one body project e.g. skin care
And make it intersect with race AND heteronormativity
5 pages
2ble spaced
Margins 1 inch
Times new roman
Indent each paragraph
No line between paragraphs
Last names on each page with page #
Title page is preferred
Staple
Definitely describe primary source – also cite them – you can insert image at the end of
the paper
Figure 1, figure 2, figure 3

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Citation – owl.perdu.edu chicago or MLA
In text citation for youtube video (dove) dove as author later in work cited list
Or (“title of ad”)
Online interview – use channel or title
John smith asks in the interview “…”
Politics of reproduction and not reproduction – it is a political issue
Why is the right to reproduction so deeply political?
e.g. having sons to pass on lineage
Higher level of education of women => birth rate goes down. Because girls stay in school
longer, having babies later. girls learn about Maternal mortality, infant mortality if having
abbies before developing completely.
If women want to have sex and not get pregnant theyd rather get contraception.
Define birth control: voluntary method of control of conception (whether or not you
become pregnant)
some are mechanical or chemical
Hormonal, barrier, natural methods
Mechanical AND barrier – condom
Hormonal and chemical – birth control pills
Natural methods – withdrawal , timing your cycle , abstinence
Mechanical – IUD – in the past only for women who had children before, now also given
teenage girls.
Sexperts J
Which od the following are forms of birth control?
a. A. Condom
b. B. withdrawal
c. C. diaphragm
d. D. breastfeeding
e. E. all of the above (correct)
Birth control – 100 years
Margaret Sanger – advocacy for generating awareness, giving women right to control
frequency of giving birth
Birth control has always been there. Timing and spacing pregnancies by women.
They used a variety of mean and technologies e.g. herbs and barrier methods
Patriarchal medicine pushed midwives out => midwives helped with the prenatal care
and birth itself, preventing pregnancies and abortions
Passeries – look like a tampon inserting things like acatia gum or a green plant to help
prevent a woman getting pregnant
Lactation /breastfeeding prevents pregnancy.
Condoms – made of skin or intestine of lamb or other animals – still have this for people
with latex allergy
In 19th century both in US and Canada
Comparative
Connected to religious revivalism
Connected to things like rise of industrialism – rise of middle class, middle class women
put in the house hold to preserve the home and raise children. They need to be protected
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