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AFSA01 (18)


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African Studies
Steven Rockel

Wednesday November 16 2011Two potential influences on children1 Family 2 Peer structurey Family is without a doubt the important factor for the development of a child y Within a family child experiences first commitments relationships emotional attachments bonds y Social relations within the family form prototypes for the nature of relationships the child will have later on in life y Family is also a source of social conflict Within family that child undergoes discipline and conflicts First experiences conflict for resources how to begin to influence other peoples behaviour compliance y Many non human primates live in groups but do not break into family units Five fundamental functions thatare necessary if a society wants to survive1 Reproduction 2 Economic Services 3 Societal Order 4 Socialization 5 Emotional Support In early human history the family unit played a role in all 5 functions as society evolved the family became less involved in all 5 units y Political institutions and law institutions take care of societal order y Schools provide socializationy Religion provides emotional support y Work produces goods and services families no longer produce economic services but are rather consumersy Family unit is still involved in reproduction socialization emotional support o Those 3 are most directly involved with children Family Socializationy Influences are bidirectional y Also influenced by other family members child to child parent to parent y Correlation parents feel that they are more competent as parents when the marital relationship is good y All the relationships are placed within a larger societal context o Higher rates of psychopathology in urban setting due to fragmental community connections o Strong ties between family and community act as a buffer for family stress Why are social ties effective buffers against family stress 1 Neighbours relatives can talk to parents about any issues enhancing parents self confidence 2 Minor things do you know a good butcher babysitter etca Also helps parents relationship 3 Parents can see other models for child rearing trade tips experiences 4 As child becomes more active in community network they form connections with more adults and theses adults can influence the child in a more positive way Ex Soccer coach is presumably a positive influence on the childThese associations provide clues as to the type of parenting that produceDimensions of ParentingWarmth y How responsive is the parent to the child how much do they praise the child y Warm parents are parents that tend to respond to the childs needs instead of flustering or ignoring the needs y Praises child even when child has no reason to be praised y Warm parents have a much more positive impact that cold or rejectful parentsWaxler Yarrow King y Had mothers of one and two year olds asked parents to keep track of childs behaviour when child sees someone in distress y The parents rated as more responsive had children who were much more likely to have children who comforted a peer who was hurt y Sometimes the playmate wasnt only hurt but child was the one who caused the playmate to get hurto When the child was the one who caused the hurt they tracked to see whether child showed reparation behaviour y Young children are very much affected by parents behaviour to them and also to each otherControl y No parent wants a child that is viewed as being out of control y Most parents realize that control can be excessive
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