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Lecture

ANTA01H3 Lecture Notes - Genetic Drift, Allosome, Gregor Mendel


Department
Anthropology
Course Code
ANTA01H3
Professor
Genevieve Dewar

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Lecture Anthropology:
Concepts: Evolution & Human Origins
What is Evolution? How does it work? Five traits:
1. Adapt to environment
2. Natural selection
3. Sexual selection(desirable traits)
4. Variation already exists in a population
5. Survival of the fittest
What is Species?
A group of creatures which breed together and produce viable and fertile offspring
May be quite similar in appearance (Dogs) &( Deer)
May all live in one part of the world (Polar bear)
Share behavioural traits
Distinguish between members of own species & others
Darwin (1859):
The origin of species(profound book in science)
Pre-Enlightened Period:
According to genesis-Adam & Eve creation story
Everything made in 6 days
Animals
Men
Never really any change
History of origins:
Origin of the earth & therefore humans based on his interpretation of the bible
In 1650 AD
OCT.23 4004 AD
Later addition 9am
Geology Contributes:
Catastrophists
George curie
If only 600 yrs. ,then global & violent catastrophes to explain canyons ,mountains
Uniformitarianism:

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“To learn about the earth study the earth”(Buffon)
Process we use today to explain life
Hutton(1788AD):slow working, uniform & natural process equals 100.000 yrs
Lyell(1875): “The present is key to present”
Reverend Chalmers: Ussher was wrong-not a bible
Corolus Linnaeus:
Categorising the works plants &animals
7 basic layers or lax on levels
Binomial system
Homo sapiens(wise men)
Said first we are part the animal system
Archaeology:
Stone tools
Thunderstones Or Pre-metal stone age
Conclusion of the Enlightenment period:
Fossils
Extinct animals
Strata & stratigraphy
Lamarck-First mechanism:
1. Adaption to the environment
2. Progression towards perfection(No final Result)
3. Inheritance of acquired characteristics(no getting traits)
Exam Question
Darwin & Wallace:
Natural selection: Variation already exists between individuals of the same species,
allows form of adaptation to change in the environment
Survival of the fittest& Sexual Selection: Those individuals that are by chance best
adapted to an environment will have higher reproductive success
Increase the frequency of the trait within the species/population
Variation is random and there is no direction
Good trait increase in frequency
Grant & Grant (2002):
Study of the finches:

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Beaks on animals
The ones that had the beaks favorable to environment survived
Ex. Population grew for the larger beaked birds(useful for seeds)
Darwin’s Finches:
Change occurs adaption to change for local environment
Changes works on the variation of traits already present
No direction
Natural Selection:
1. Favourable variations promote survival of the individuals in whom they appear
a. Traits are inherited by their offspring’s
b. Favourable variations
2. Unfavorable variations don’t promote survival
a. May cause individuals to die at an early age
b. May reduce fertility of bearers, who have few offspring’s
c. Either way, unfavorable variations tend to be removed from the population
3. For any species, natural forces act to favour the expansion of some traits and favor
the removal of other traits form future generations
Process of Evolution:
Mutation
Act on individual
Gene flow
Act on population
Genetic drift
Act on population
Gregor Mendel (1822-1884):
Breeding experiments with pea plants
Traits in offspring are not passed solely by either parent
Traits are passed in small, independent package from parent
We call these packages “genes”
Mendel’s Breeding program:
Crossbred
F1 generation
F2 generation
(Punette Square)
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