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Lecture

ANTA01H3 Lecture Notes - Foramen Magnum, Sagittal Crest, Diastema


Department
Anthropology
Course Code
ANTA01H3
Professor
Emma Humphrey

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11/07/2011
1
Hominin Anatomy - Review
Cranium
Apelike cranial traits in early
hominins
oPrognathic face, cheek
bones, reduced, small
cranium (300-500 cc)
oLarge, spatula-like incisors,
large canines, narrow molars
oDiastema (gap for upper
canine)
oNo chin
oSagittal crest, nuchal crest
oSomewhat posterior
foramen magnum
oSupraorbital torus
(pronounced, continuous
brow ridge)
Hominin/Human cranial traits
oOrthognathic face, reduced
cheek bones, large cranium
(500+ cc)
oSmaller incisors, canines,
wider flatter molars
oNo diastema
oChin (modern human)
oNo sagittal crest, reduced
nuchal crest
oMore anterior foramen
magnum
oReduced/no supraorbital
torus
Cranial Traits
Gracile Australopithecines
oVery prognathic pre-maxilla
oLarge teeth & jaw
oWide range of tooth sizes
oGeneralised diet
oMuscle attachment for chewing on
sides of cranium rather than on
the back (no sagittal crest)
oRelatively small temporal fossa
oLow, short face
oSteep forehead
oLong arms; curved fingers & toes
oPelvis short + wide; femur angled
inwards (though short)
oDefinitely bipedal
A. afarensis
A. africanus
Robust Paranthropines
Generally less prognathic
Smaller incisors, canines
Larger premolars & molars
Specialised diet poor quality
Muscle attachment for
chewing muscles on top
and/or rear of cranium
Sagittal crest
Large temporal fossa
Broad, high face
Forehead flatter
oLong arms; curved fingers &
toes; divergent toe
oArboreal & bipedal
P. robustus
P. boisei
Emergence of Homo (2.5-1.8 mya)
1. Expanded brain (avg. 640 cc +)
2. More human cranial features: increased
cranial vault height (reduced face);
development of sloping “forehead”
3. Reduction in size of jaws and cheek
teeth - reduced lower face prognathism
(tooth rows tucked under face)
4. Reduced sexual dimorphism
5. Human-like body proportions: small
body bulk for stature, as opposed to high
body bulk for stature (apes); reduced arm
length relative to leg.
habilis
rudolfensis
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