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Chapter 13 notes

Course Code
Genevieve Dewar

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Chapter 13 Notes:
The Meaning of Civilization:
x Civilization: cultures with a food surplus, social stratification, labour specialization, rule by
power, monumental construction projects, and a system of recordkeeping
x New Social Structures at ~9,000ya
x A consequence of the shift to food production is the development of enormous surpluses
x whenever there is abundance, density, and reliability of a food source, there will inevitably be
social & political complexity
x Powerful rulers and chiefs (priests and warriors) emerge to control, organize, & centralize the
supply & distribution of resources
x this eventually leads to the development of cities, civilizations, and modern life as we know it
x There are 7 categories of civilization
1. Food and Labour Surplus
¾ Food output was still low evry1 need to be involved in food gathering
¾ Improvements in farming technology by; using large animals for farming, and
¾ /víõõì[UÀPu]v}µv}µPZ(}}}(íïì}oUZrefore
allowing others to engage in other pursuits
¾ plow, draft animals, & the wheel
¾ Less people needed for food production
¾ Frees up a proportion of the population to specialize as non-food producers
¾ Artisans, merchants, soldiers, elite
2. Social Stratification
¾ Hunter-gather everyone is considered equal ( including age and sex)
¾ Paleo and many early Neolithic were egalitarian or pretty close to it
¾ Social stratification: difference in social system
¾ People born into social strata and stay there their entire lives
¾ With surplus food, requires managers and eventually elite
¾ like a pyramid, social status develops, with acknowledged differences
¾ King on top, artisans and managers in the middle, and farmers on the
3. Formal Government
¾ State Society: a formal government t with ruling class controlling the populace
by force
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