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chapter 11 notes

Course Code
Genevieve Dewar

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Chapter 11 Notes
x Fossils such as Omo I (195,000 years old) and Herto (165,000years old) are fundamentally
modern : they look just like us
Comparing the Middle and Upper Palaeolithic
x Upper Paleo(Europe): term used for the final phase of the paleo in Europe dating to between
40,000 and 10,000ya, associated with the 1st appearance of anatomically modern humans in
x Late Stone Age: final phase of stone age in Africa dating between 40,000 and 10,000ya
x Both the Upper paleo and late stone age mean the same thing (equivalent to each other)
x Middle Paleo (Europe): term used for the time period in Europe after the lower paleo and
before the before the upper paleo, dating between 250,000 and 40,000ya in compassing the
cultures of pre modern varieties of human beings, including the Neandertals
x Middle Stone Age : the term used for the time period in Africa after the early stone age and
before the late stone age, dating to between 250,000 and 40,000ya, encompassing the cultures
of pre modern varieties of human beings, including those transitional between pre modern and
anatomically modern H. Sapiens
x Randall White, has examined some if the major differences between cultures of the European
Middle and Upper paleo; his list applies equally well to Africa and Asia. List has 8 steps:
1. Stone tool technologies based on the production of elongated blades rather than flakes
¾ Blade production involves significant planning and careful preparation of the stone
core in order to maximize both the consistency and number of elongated, sharp-
edged tool blanks that are produced from it
¾ This blade has more than 5 times the of usable edge
¾ /]v[µv]o}µñîUìììÇZ we see the beginning of a systematic movement
toward this method of stone tool production
¾ Blade-based stone technology developed in western Europe by about 35,000B.P
¾ Craving tools called burins
¾ Gravettian: an upper paleo tool making tradition, characterized by the production
of small and denticulate knives. Dated from 27,000 to 21,000B.P
¾ Solutrean: stone tool making tradition of the European Upper paleo, dating from
21,000 to 16,000ya

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¾ Projectile Point: A pointed tool or weapon- genrally a stone, bone, or antler tip
hafted onto a shaft, often of wood- which is thrown or shot at a target, usually a
hunted animal. usually includes a spear points and arrowhead
¾ Magdalenian: A late Upper paleo culture in Europe dating from 16,000 to
11,000B.P. includes finely made barbed harpoons carved decorative objects, and
cave paintings
¾ Microblades: small, usually extremely sharp, stone blades. Microblades were set
into handles of bone, wood, antler, and so forth
2. Broadening of the subsistence base to include big-game hunting, small mammal trapping,
fishing and catching birds
¾ Middle Paleo inhabitants of this area were opportunistic hunters, killed what they
could when they could
¾ Upper paleo levels, however, freeman identified a consistence increase over time in
the number of prey species represented, indicating, perhaps , more efficient
hunting strategies
¾ In south central Russia near modern Irkutsk, clearly based on hunting of the big-
game animals that migrated across
¾ These hunter almost certainly used the animals hides for clothing
¾ Hunting and trapping smaller mammals also supplied food in the upper Paleo
¾ Net would have facilitated hunting these small, quick animals for their meat and for
the warm pelt that they could provide
¾ Net fibres themselves have not been preserved, section of nets were accidently into
the clay floor of the inhabitants houses
¾ It is unlikely that upper Paleo people overlook important sources of nutrition
3. Increased use of bone, ivory, and antler for making, tools
¾ Upper Paleo, our ancestors perfected technologies that they had previously only
experimented with, employing raw material other than including bone, ivory, and antler
¾ Tool they made include sewing equipment such as awls, punches and eyed needles, as
well as hunting equipment such as projectile points
4. Manufacture of non utilitarian objects, particular item of personal adornment
¾ Do[UÁ a tradition of carved artwork, perhaps as part of a religious pattern
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