chapter 3 is not on the exam. chapter 1, 2, 4, 5, 7, 8, 9. know ppl incommn with txt & lecture slides. the primate tree slide- offers a timetable from when certain species ruled, and how they spread out and evolved into different species. bottom of graph is the dino age, crutasious period. top of the graph is closest to us. capitulum side to side, like screwing a light bulb. hominoids are the apes, and non ancestors of humans. hominids are those of chimps, and ancestors to humans. there is a similar line between the chimp human line, and that of the chimp-ape-human line, but there are differences. humans (homo), chimpanzees & bonbos (pan), gorillas (gorilla), modifications to the humerus: there humerus is modified so that they can hang into trees. how do we identify them: bipedal.