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ANTA01H3 Lecture Notes - Taung Child, Australopithecus Garhi, Paranthropus

Course Code
Genevieve Dewar

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Chapter 3 is not on the exam
Chapter 1, 2, 4, 5, 7, 8, 9
Know ppl incommn with txt & lecture slides
The Primate Tree slide- Offers a timetable from when certain species
ruled, and how they spread out and evolved into different species
Shows relationships and times
Bottom of graph is the dino age, crutasious period
Top of the graph is closest to us
Modifications to the humans
Trochlea up and down movements
Capitulum side to side, like screwing a light bulb
Human Beginnings
Hominoids are the apes, and non ancestors of humans
Hominids are those of chimps, and ancestors to humans
There is a similar line between the chimp human line, and that of the
chimp-ape-human line, but there are differences
Bipedality stands/walks on two legs
Use of tools
Brain size increase
Humans (Homo), Chimpanzees & Bonbos (Pan), Gorillas (Gorilla),
Orangutans (Pongo) & Gibbons (Hylobates)
Large bodied
Arboreal- Living in trees
Some tool use
2:1:2:3 dental formula
Y-5 cusp pattern
Modifications to the Humerus
oThere humerus is modified so that they can hang into trees

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Homo+ Pan+ ancestors of both
Genetic studies 5-8 MYA
Share 98% of DNA
How do we identify them?
Chimpanzees and apes can walk bipedal but not habitually
Human heads have there foremen magnum so that they can project
forward, so that the brainstem comes through the middle
oWhere as in apes it is positioned in the back
Legs are longer in humans, because they are used primarily for
Our pelvic gurdle has changed as well to hold everything inside
Hominoid Specialized Locomotion
First, top left, Gibons under branches
Centre, chimps, under branches
Left bottom, gorilla or chimps, can walk on 2 legs, but not for long
Bottom left
Anatomical Evidence
Hominoids- dental pattern, Y-5 Cusps, tailless, evidence for specialized
Hominins- Pan?- Homo? Genetics suggests looking at 8-5MYA
Bipeds- location of FM, angle of knee, pelvis morphology, foot
morphology, curvature of sepine

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Typically find multitude of primitive and derived traits together
Foot morphology ape feet has a toe like our thumbs, - our toes moved
forward and gained an arc
Earths Climate Slide-
Dotted line left of it, is ice age
oMiocene- Adaptive period of hominoids
Hominoids adaptive radiation
There must be a connection between the increasing of
temperature and the ability to become bipedal
Wet environment to dry environment at the end of the
Miocene, opening up savannahs, needed to be bipedo
Australopithecus/ Paranthropus
Found 5 to 1 MYA in East and South Africa
+ Chad- A. bahrelghazali
Bipedal when on the ground
Apelike brain
Robust forms sometimes called Paranthropus
Lumpers Vs. Splitters = when you find a tooth in one area, and a body
1 km away, same species or not?
Archeological vision- If something exists or if there just isnt any access
to it
Because of gold, not deep in the ground
Most fossils were found in mines
A.anamensis (Australopithecus anamensis)
<write in italics or underline>
KNOW Where is it from, how old, and what cc
~5 mya
East Africa
Ape like dentition
Small front teeth
Large back teeth
Brain 300 ccs
Big molars which allow them to chew on vegetables
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