ANTA01H3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 10: Homo Floresiensis, Denisovan, Hobbit

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Published on 20 Nov 2015
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ANTA01 – Lecture 10 – Anatomically Modern Humans
Objectives
Examine characteristics of Anatomically modern humans
oLook at the morphology, technology, & culture
How did anatomically modern humans spread over Europe & Asia?
How are anatomically modern humans related to contemporaneous species?
Movie “Alien from Earth”
Modern Humans Appear?
The African fossil record for time of Neanderthals is really patchy but is approximately
300-130 thousand years ago
oSome finds show that modern humans are not like Neanderthals in anatomy but
more like Homo heidelbergensis
Approximately 130-90 thousand years ago, there are specimens (modern humans)
found in Africa. Our first fossils come from Ethiopia, Morocco, South Africa, and etc.
oWe see smaller faces, smaller browridges, and a higher & rounded crania.
However, everything it still fragmentary
AMH Morphology
They are fragmented features.
The morphological features of a modern human: rounded skull, high forehead, reduced
brow ridge, small face and protrude chin, smaller teeth, and less robust.
AMH Behaviour
Anatomically modern humans lived in a wide range of ecological ranges
oWe evolved in Africa but we spread across the globe and lived further north than
any previous species
They adapted to the cold but this was very cultural.
They lived at higher densities than Neanderthals
oShelters are being built and clothes are being made whereas Neanderthals lived
in caves
oWe had larger village, family type settings
Their lifespan was longer: 60 yeas for males, 45 years for females
oThis means higher population density!
AMH Shelters & Clothing
Evidence for shelters are the huts that were built by mammoth bones
There is evidence of sites and evidence of hearths (long burning fires), mammoth teeth,
and large bones
There are remains of small villages where we could guess how many people lived in
each hut given the size of it
Bone needles were found as well as animal skeletons with the feet missing which
provides evidence of clothing
oIf you kill an animal for skin, it is hard to take skin off the feet, so it usually
detached
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There is evidence at this time for ceremonial burials
AMH Tools
Our tool culture becomes more advanced
We are now using mode 4 tools – upper Paleolithic tools
This tool culture is very broad and is characterized by long blades
This tool culture also includes chisels, scrapers, knives, and spears
The shape of the tool in Mode 4 requires a mental blueprint
AMH Prey Types
There is a large reliance on meat and because of the tool culture they used (Mode 4),
which also means they were able to hunt
There is a bigger preference for large herbivores
oMammoths, horses, bison, reindeer
Prey were very important to the diet of anatomically modern humans
Their diet changed with respect to the migratory pattern of animals
AMH Art
There are engravings on bones
Cave art
oDates from 17,000 to 30,000 years ago
They used natural substances to draw and paint known as plant pigments
oThings like fruits and plants
Beads have been found as well
oEvidence that beads were sewn on clothing, maybe in a particular pattern
Neanderthals vs. AMH
Anatomically modern humans
oMore gracile
oLived at higher population densities
oLived in shelters and wore clothing that were made by them
oThey had art and ceremonial burials
oThey lived in villages
Both Neanderthals and AMH
oBoth used fire
oBoth buried their dead
Origin of Modern Humans
The Regional Continuity Model: Multiregional Evolution
oSuggested that local archaic Homo populations in Africa, Europe & Asia were all
continuing their evolutionary development to anatomically modern humans in
different areas
oSuggested that significant levels of migration and interbreeding were occurring
during the Pleistocene which lead to populations on different continents end up
physically & genetically similar
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