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Lecture 2

ANTA01H3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: Cytosine, Fossil, Gamete


Department
Anthropology
Course Code
ANTA01H3
Professor
Carolan Wood
Lecture
2

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LEC 2 ANTA01 MAY 17, 2012
DARWIN (NS) + MENDEL (GENETICS + MOLECULAR BIO) = MODERN EVO TH
DARWIN AFTER BEAGLE
WALLACE
DARWIN’S “ORIGIN OF SPECIES BY MEANS OF NS”
DARWIN’S COMMENT ON HUMAN EVOLUTION
DARWIN/WALLACE CONTRIBUTIONS
CONCEPT OF NS (DIVE) WALLACE/DARWIN
MECHANISM OF NS MENDEL
MENDELIAN GENETICS
EXPERIMENT
INDEP ASSORTMENT
ALLELE COMBOS
NON-MENDEL INHERITENCE
POLYGENIC
PLEIOITROPHY
VARIATION BY
MUTATION
MEIOSIS
EVO IMPORTANCE
GENE REDISTRIBUTION BY:
GENE DRIFT/FLOW
ADAPTATION
DARWIN AFTER BEAGLE
1838 D reads Malthus “Population” Essay
1944 D puts EVO TH BY NS
Scared to publish, feared reprisal
Huxley supported D (His representative and homie)
WALLACE
Huxley’s Friend
Same conclusion as D (collecting specimen in Indonesia)
1858 sent D manuscript named “Tendency of Varieties to Depart Indefinitely
from Original Type”
1858 D present paper to Royal Linnaean Society (RLS) quick, no peer edit
1859 BOOK = “ORIGIN OF SPECIES BY MEANS OF NS”
Malthus’ “Population” essay = “organisms potential for pop growth outstripping
food supply”
M (Human), D (Species) = Struggle for Existence
In nature, populations are relatively STABLE
Observation: Nature has lots of variation, some favoured and some not = NS
DARWIN’S COMMENT ON HUMAN EVOLUTION = Humans have evolved
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LEC 2 ANTA01 MAY 17, 2012
Went against Church = God made everything perfect, no need for change
African Great Apes = Closest Human Relative
Africa = Earliest member of human lineage
DARWIN/WALLACE CONTRIBUTIONS
NS = From existing variations, nature selects species best adapted to their envi
Adaptive traits inc/time
Evo = No direction (more like being at the right place/time)
Selection acts on existing variation (variation already w/in a pop)
Diff pop, diff envi, diff selective pressures
SPECIATION: when pop becomes so distinct. Therefore species can’t interbreed
Organisms best adapted to envi have highest chance of surviving/reproducing
successfully
CONCEPT OF NS
1. VARIATION IS SHOWN B/W INDIV FOR EACH TRAIT
a. NS operates on variation, does not need to be expressed (can be gene
coded)
2. INHERITED = TRAITS (from parents to offspring)
3. ENVI = FILTER (pressures NS to act)
4. DIFFERENTIAL REPRODUCTIVE SUCCESS
a. Frequency of adaptive traits increase as you’re better adapted to envi
NB. NOT ALL TRAITS COME FROM NS
I.e. NS does not account NEUTRAL TRAITS (originate from random processes i.e.
gene drift/flow)
Darwin/Wallace = “We need variation for NS!”
MECHANISM OF NS (MENDEL )= “I know where variation comes from!”
EXPERIMENT (pea plants)
Took notes on types and proportion of hybrids, testing blending of inheritance
1st Breed of Green and Yellow = got ALL YELLOW
2nd Gen = YELLOW:GREEN (3:1)
Conclusion =
traits must be passed on using discrete units either 0 or 1 no
intermediates)
some traits will be dominant over recessives (yellow over green)
Dominant = gene/allele will ALWAYS be expressed phenotypically
Recessive = phenotypic expression suppressed (only expressed with 2 together)
Genotype = genetic makeup
Phenotype = physical expression
Conclusion: NS works by HEREDITY (advantageous variations are passed down)
MENDELIAN GENETICS
HERITABLE VARIATION = BASIS OF EVO
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