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Lecture 4

ANTA01H3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 4: Big Difference, Mercedes-Benz M180 Engine, Black Colobus


Department
Anthropology
Course Code
ANTA01H3
Professor
Carolan Wood
Lecture
4

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LEC 4 ANTA01 MAY 31, 2012
WHY STUDY LIVING NON HUMAN PRIMATES
GIVES ONLY LIVING MODEL FOR HUMAN ANCESTORS
MODELS EITHER
EXPERIMENTAL = PRO = SPEC VAR CAN BE CTRL
CON = IMPOSE ARTIFICIAL ENVI
NATURAL OBSERVATION
PRO = BETTER PIC OF BEH, MORE REWARDING
CON = EXPENSIVE/ TIME CONSUMING
ORDER PRIMATES
PRIM SHARE NUMBER OF TRAITS CONSIDERED TO BE SHARED BY COMMON
ANCESTOR = ANCESTRAL TRAITS
Some traits evolved + changed from common ancestor = DERIVED TRAITS
eg. Hair = DERIVED for mammals. Rel to other non mam vertebates, mam gen
have hair. Hair is actually ancestral for humans. Closest rel eg gorrillas have
hair
hard to determine if trait is ancestral or derived many ways groupings for
each.
TENDENCY FOR LARGE BRAIN REL HEAVY IN PROP TO BODY WEIGHT
True of all primates
MORE COMPLEX BRAINS GIVES ABILITY OF THOUGHT (GREATER)
LARGE BRAIN ACCOMODATES MORE RELIANCE ON VISION COMPARED TO
MAMMAMELS AND DEXTERITY HANDS
OTHER COMMONALITIES
RELY MORE ON VISION VS SMELL
COLOUR VISION - eg. Look at tree know when ripe and know when to
eat
STEREOSCOPIC VISION GIVES DEPTH PERCEPTION EYES
POSITIONED FORWARD = BINOCULAR GIVES BETTER FOCUS ON
OBJECTS GIVES OVERLAPPING VISUAL FIELDS GIVES US DEPTH
PERCEPTION MORE DEV IN ANTHROPOIDS VS PERSIMEONS
GRASPING TOES AS WELL AS HANDS (OPPOSABLE BIG TOE)
FLEXIBLE LIMB STRUCTURE WIDE RANGE OF LOCOMOTOR BEH AS
PRIMATES swing trees, terrestrial quadroheads
TENDENCY TO ERECT POSTURE (EAT, SIT, LEAP, STAND)
4 legs = far faster , 2 legs, not so much but able to carry
HIGH DEV OF TACTILE PADS helps with grip, feel way around
NAILS instead of claws
LACK OF DIETARY SPECIALIZATION means we’re omnivores (all kinds of
food)
Tend to have dentition far more generalized eg. Dog teeth adapted to eating
meat.
HETERODONT DENTITION diff kinds of teeth for diff purpose

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LEC 4 ANTA01 MAY 31, 2012
Molar vs canine vs incisor
We hae a dental formula number of each type of teeth based on quadrant,
not on maxillary or madnibular teeth
Generally 2123 dental formula
Most primate have 2133 (2 inscor, 1 canine, 3 premolar , 3 molars) new world
monkey
Exception to 2133 rule are the hominoids apes and humans basically
Insorocr grab
Canine useless for humans
Premolars processing food
MATURATION, LEARNING, BEH
MORE EFFICIENT FETAL NOURISHMENT
Tend to have fewer offspring and longer gestation period (time to birth
a fully formed baby) put lot more time into making the baby
Delayed maturation and longer life span
Flexible and learned beh rely less on instinct vs learning
More complex social groups
Most of us are diurnal active in day time most species
2 diff way to classify primates text book use older method = prosimina
dn anthropoid
prosimian tend to resmble other animals more than anthropoids
MODERN PRIMATES SUBORDERS
PROSIMIANS LEMUR + BUSH BABY OR GALADO,
LEMURS, LORISES, TARSIERS
Gen features:
They vary some noctural and solitary, some diurnal and social
More rely on smell vs anthropoid . partial binocular vision (rely less on
smell vs other more so than anthropoid)
Small quadrapeds
Vertical clinging and leaping
Tend to have mobile eyes and whiskers, pointed snouts (larger snout
more rely on smell), some claws, some nails
Not much facial expression vs chimps
ALTERNATE CLASSIFICATION
PROSIMEANS into 2 other cat
Eg. TARSIER
Put all the STREPSIRHIENS LERMUR LORISE with wet noses = rely more on
smell most persimeans
HAPLORINES = TARSIERS + ANTHROPOIDS (monkey, ape, human)
Dry nose reduced smell sense
Also eyes closer together and protected by bony orbits on side
Vs persimean open might have post orbital bar
Placenta allows for contact b/w blood of mom and baby
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