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Lecture 5

ANTA01H3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 5: Swartkrans, Paranthropus Aethiopicus, Paranthropus


Department
Anthropology
Course Code
ANTA01H3
Professor
Carolan Wood
Lecture
5

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ALL MC
LECTURE, TUTORIAL, READINGS (1-8)
60 MC
PRIMATE ORIGINS
hard time classifying fossils due to:
fossils indiv vary
age differences (6yo vs adult)
sexual dimorphism diff in b/w sexes
if no pelvis could not differ male or female
change w/in species over time
End of cretaceous period have separation of continents
Brought new ecological niches
Climate became MILD new vegetation
Spread of tropical/subtropical forest
Move to arboreal life (life in trees)
Place of origin of 1st primate UNKNOWN but we looking at beginnings by 60
mya
THEORIES OF PRIMATE ORIGINS
ARBOREAL THEORY
Move for better way to move thru trees
Need for stereoscopic vision (3d vision) grasping hand/foot
VISUAL PREDATION THEORY (MATT CARTMILL)
3d vision and grasping, nails over claws, better for hunting insects
origin was probably insectivore
TIMELINE OF PRIMATES (CHART FROM HAVILAND)
KT EVENT
Cretecoius, terteiary extinction event (KT, not CT) wtf..
70% of all species went extinct
allow for adaptive radiation of mammals- due to more niches to fill
from 65 to 55 mya
EOCENE (55-34 MYA)
Some primates w/ some features of modern prosimeons
OLIGOCENE (34-24)
Monkey and apelike features
MIOCENE
24-5 MYA
monkeys and diff kinds of apes appearing
PALEOCENE (65-55MYA)
earliest primates did appear most was contested

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called plesiadaptiformes found in Europe and NA
grasping ability
dentition adapted for fruit eating
and long arms suited for tree life
eg. Purgatorius like a rat
a bit contested some say earliest primates were missing lot of picture in
between
EOCENE 55 34 MYA
earliest recognized primates
anthropoid existence is greatly disputed
find these guys in Africa, NA, Europe and asia
climate was warm and wet, lots of rain
types of primates:
lemur like adapids and tarsier like omomyids (persimmeon like)
fossils show a rounder braincase
short snout (less reliance on smell, more on vision)
more forward facing eyes (for 3d visions)
some nails
OLIGOCENE 34 23 MYA
earliest undisputed anthropoids
prosimians less common
ancestors of NW monkeys = platyrrhines
Australia has no actual primates
Prominence and diversity of haplorhines monkeys and apelike primates
eg. Aegyptopithecus
fossils show ape like dentition 2123
brain larger visual cortex
yet still have more monkey like skull and body
quadrapedal locomotion on all 4s
sexual dimorph males larger than females
MIOCENE APES 23-5 MYA
proliferation of apes throut
old world forests
generally, dentition is more ape like
but postcranial (skull down) is more monkey like
limb bones for suspension
Genus Proconsul (famous of these) 20-17mya
Unspecialized tree-dwelling fruit eating hominoid (apes and humans)
Overall, they were closer to apes-human lineage than old world monkeys
DIVERGENCE
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First great ape to diverge are oran
Separate b/w 10-12 mya
By Miocene see ape like primates
Ancestral primate to orans = sivapithecus (found in Indonesia)
Like a pre orang
Regarding chimps and gorillas we have dryopithecus
b/w 4-6 mya apes and humans are separated from common ancestor (end of
Miocene)
10-12 miocene orang split
4-6 us and ours sep from great apes
by 4 mya we have undisputed bipedal hominins (most in east Africa)
BETWEEN MIOCENE APES AND AUSTRALOPITHECUS
3 possibilities
1st. Sahelanthropus tchadensis (in Chad of Africa)
7-6 mya
possibly bipedal based on forward location of foramen magnum
in bipideal shud be directly undneath
in quadropeds will be behind
Hominoid small brain, large brow ridges, wide face
Teeth were very HOMININ canines don’t project below other teeth
2nd. ORRORIN TUGENENSIS (east Africa)
around 6mya
incisors and canines are more ape like
molars are thick enamel like the australopithecines, but smaller
suggests bipedalism (not all agree with this)
uncertain evolutionary rlsp (not sure if this was indivu that carried on to
next or branched off to become something else)
3rd. ARDIPITHECUS RAMIDUS (E AFRICA)
dates 5.8 to 4.4 mya
likely bipedal when on ground b/c of foramen magnum
mixture of ape and hominin dental features (thin enamel)
forested envi (not like the savanna
BIPEDALISM
separated humans from ancestors from apes
most crucial change and most defining one at this time
POSITION OF FORAMEN MAGNUM
CHIMP angle is getting more acute
Prognathism how much face projects forward (less w/ bipedalism more on
changing diet)
Reduce muscular of neck b/c head balance on back bone doesn’t have to be
forward
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