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Lecture 3

Week 3 Lecture


Department
Anthropology
Course Code
ANTA02H3
Professor
Victor Barac
Lecture
3

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CULTURE: METHODS OF STUDY
Methods of Study: Overview
1.A Brief History of Ethnography
1.Herodotus
2. Ibn Battuta
3.Jean de Léry
4.Lewis Henry Morgan
5.Franz Boas
6.Bronislaw Malinowski
2.Fieldwork basics
3.Fieldwork methods
4.Fieldwork strategy
Herodotus (484 B.C. 425 B.C.)
Anthropology is a social and cultural science
First ethnographer
We know classical ancient Greece (479-431 BC) most through his writings
The Histories (circa 440 B.C.)
His famous work
The wars between the Greeks and Persians
Greeks lived in small city states/entities and are often at war with each other
Its the first attempt in western history in objective account of peoples past without mention
God
One of the reasons Herodotus had to develop his perspective is because he was very well tr
throughout the Mediterranean
The World of Herodotus
He was the first to describe the foreign people non-Greeks (people who were unable to spe
Greek and spoke bar-bar = Barbarians)
Because of the people Herodotus described, many of the m were from civilizations of antiqui
e.g. Persia, India, Arabia, Egypt, Babylon, North Africa
What describes his method is the use of oral history talking to people and asking about the
experiences, lives, famil y, where they come from as opposed to the Goddess
He talks to many soldiers who have fought in Persian war, spoke to many merchants, brough
down things to mundane level
The fact that he did base much of his work on oral history produced in some of his accounts
people, distortion
Herodotus is of ten known as father of history or father of lives because of this distortion
This was globalization from Herodotus perspective, was the globe for him
Ibn Battuta (1304 1369 or 1377) Moroccan judge
A Gift to Those Who Contemplate the Wonders of Cities and the Marvels of Travelling, or, The Rihla
Ibn Batutta (1355)
A compendium of tales of travel t hat were recorded ascribed (told the story and someone w
them out and resulted in this book)
This work is notable in that its based on firsthand long term observation (travelled, lived am
people)
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Travelled by ship or caravan (camel) to Beijing
Ibn Battutas Travels a map of Battutas travel in green in comparison to Marco Polos travel in re
Travelled along North Eastern coast and Turkey, travelled along the Black sea
Was Muslim tradition
He went to Delhi in India and he travelled the various kingdoms of Indonesia (pre-Islamic
kingdo ms of Indonesia)
Made it to Vietnam and China as an ambassador
Ends up back in Morocco and goes to Timbuktu famous market that shows extreme culture
Africa
Jean de Léry (1534 1613) was a Frenchman, one of the earliest modern European ethnographers
Active in early days of discovery, setting sail in to North America
His work is pure ethnography because he was a French protestant/pasture
1. Detailed account of the Tupinamba of Brazil (History of a Voyage to the Land of Brazil, 1578)
2. Ethnology as semiotics a science of signs
Goes under semiology
Was a good tool
3. Basis of cultural comparison by Michel de Montaigne (Of Cannibals, 1580)
Essay on cannibals
What he was engaged in was comparing two cannibals
During this era, was known as wars of religion (massive war between
Catholics and protestants
French soldiers were dying in tens of thousands and did not have food
delivered and were eating each other in huge quantities
How that influences public discourses on cultural diversities
Lewis Henry Morgan (1818 1881)
Known for his work on the Iroquois
Was a lawyer and businessman and politician
Was an expert in constitution law
Iroquois was essentially a five tribe in forming confederation
Represented the Iroquois in various court battles
Bought some shares and mines and subsequently became very prosperous, it
meant that he didnt have to get a job as a professor, teaching and getting
money, he was able to finance his own work, and you have complete
academic freedom
1. League of the HoDeNoSau Nee, or Iroquois (1851)  
Its his ethnographic work of the Seneca people were the largest of
the six nations of the Iroquois
Was based on firsthand observation
2. Systems of Consanguinity and Affinity of the Human Family (1871)
He publishes this book which nobody reads anymore
A book about kinship ter minology = the words people use to address
their relatives (e.g. mother, father, brother, grandfather, etc.)
What he found out was cross culturally underneath all the linguistic
differences, there are essentially six different kinship differences, there
are strong patterning and kinship ter minologies
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