Week 8 Lecture

12 views7 pages
Published on 7 Jul 2011
School
UTSC
Department
Anthropology
Course
ANTA02H3
Professor
MATING, MARRIAGE & FAMILY
OVERVIEW
1. Domestic life
2. Family
3. Marriage
4. Postmarital Residence = what happens after you get married
Domestic Life kinship studies used to be of most concern
1.The organization of everyday life eating, sleeping, cleaning, bringing up the
children, sex, working, etc. in families or households of various kinds
2.Elements of social structure
1.the domestic economy in terms of production and trade
3.Basic social groupings
1.Family = group of people who are considered related in some way (either
biological or through marriage)
How you define family varies cross culturally
Legal definition of family = legal or common law couple with or
without children, or married couple with or without children, or one
spouse with children (not legal definition in Canada)
2.Household = residential or unit, involves production or consumption, may
coincide with the family or not, may include kin or non-kin
Family Functions
G.P. Murdoch's functions of the family [Social Structure, 1949] early attempt at
cross cultural generalization / HRAF, an attempt to centralize cross-cultural data,
was very expensive
1.Diminishes sexual competition who is allowed and who is not
2.Protects child bearing females child support system
3.Primary context of enculturation people get oriented in how they learn to
become bipedal and how to talk, all done in family context
4.Sexual division of labour
The Nuclear Family consists of grouping of parents and children
1.Found in virtually all societies
2.Dominant in some of the most simple & most complex societies most
common in complex industrial societies as well as foraging societies
The Extended Family = brings into the group siblings of various kinds, children of
siblings, grandparents, cousins of various kinds
Was dominant domestic form in preindustrial world where most peasantry
and agriculture was carried out by people who lived in extended families
Extended families were units of production, while nuclear families were not
Extended families provide a basis for a more complex division of labour than
nuclear families
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Stem family they act as ideals in different societies, in India (sons and their
family)
Joint family they act as ideals in different societies, tends to be more
favoured by the Han in Chinese in China and Taiwan
Extended families can be defensive with arms and military means
Have fluid composition that make them adaptable over time
Within a joint family, you can still identify with nuclear family (you can still
have your own family, child, spouse)
Theres a lot of pressure in agricultural societies because these are a larger
collective form/basis for production, so collective egos must be maintained to
have a viable family
The Extended Family Today = less compatible with the industrial society
1. Industrial society requires a mobile labour force
Labour has to be flexible and mobile main dynamics of
industrialization and urbanization
2.New family forms supplant the extended family in industrial society (as the
extended family form changes, its replaced by other forms)
1.Nuclear family modernity
2.Single parent family the result of the death of a spouse or divorce, but
increasingly the result of choice
3.Blended family it arises from fragments from single-parent family, they
reform and reattach to a family
4.Expanded family = the rise of non-kin based families, e.g. gay and lesbian
families, people adopted in a family
3.Extended family endures elsewhere is still the dominant form in some parts
of the world, e.g. in rural parts of China, Asia
Marriage Rules families are dependent on rules of marriage (only one spouse at a
time)
1.Exogamy = rules that dictate you must marry outside of a specific range of
relatives, outside of the family/lineage/clan
Is based on the ancestors and taboo
Marry out or die out
2.Endogamy = marry outside the family but within a fine range of people, e.g.
within ethnic group/race/class
3.Prescriptive rules defines specifically what group youre supposed to marry,
eliminate everybody in society (e.g. youre only allowed to marry that one
person)
4.Preferential rules built up from various components involved, many are
implied than are explicitly stated and work in clusters (e.g. general
preference for looks, wealth, achievement, intelligence, or character, etc.)
Some of these are understated (everythings good about him
except...)
Forms of Marriage
1.Monogamy = one spouse at a time
1.Strict (just one marriage) vs. Serial (one spouse at a time)
Most common form of marriage
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