ANTA02H3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 7: Transhumance, Extensive Farming, Pastoralism

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Published on 4 Mar 2020
School
Department
Course
Key Terms
Modes of livelihood
Foraging
Intensive, extensive and industrial agriculture
Pastoralism and transhumance
Forms of political organization
Bands, tribes, cheifdoms, states
Forms of social organization
Traditional and modern types of society
Barbarianism as state effect
Balentia, balente
Localism, cosmopolitanism
Roadmap for Today's Class
Modes of livelihood and social organization
Why did humans move away from hunting and gathering and with what
consequences for social and political organization?
Hwo does understanding this history shed light on Legacies of Violence (especially
re: pastoralism, the state?)
Pastoralism as a mode of livelihood
§
Legacies of Violence: key arguments
With special attention to the above, and
Attention to how all of this is relevant for your writing assignment
More assignment tips/ how it will be evaluated
Modes of Livelihood and Forms of Social and Political Organization
Key terms to keep in mind:
Modes of livelihood
Political organization
Social organization
How are these things interrelated as we look at the shift from foraging to swidden
Lecture 7 (Wrapping Up Legacies of Violence)
Friday, January 31, 2020
11:35 AM
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zation
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How are these things interrelated as we look at the shift from foraging to swidden
agriculture to plough/irrigation/industrial agriculture?
Key Definitions
Mode of livelihood: what people do for subsistence:
How do we get the food that we eat and things that we need to stay alive?
§
Foraging (hunting, gathering, fishing)
Getting food that is out there
§
Includes scavenging -> finding food that other animals have left behind
§
1)
Horticulture (domestication of plants and animals)
Extensive agriculture (slash-and-burn/swidden)
§
Pastoralism
Nomadic herding (irregular movement from pasture to pasture)
You follow you animals in a random way
a)
Wherever there is pasture, that's where you go
b)
1)
Transhumance (migration of livestock between permanent
seasonal pasture; from highlands to lowland, for example
2)
§
2)
Intensive agriculture (plough and/or irrigation
Changes in technology that makes harvesting easier
a.
3)
Mechanized/industrial agriculture
Tractors, fertilizer, mechanised irrigation systems, genetically modified crops,
factory farming, etc.
a.
Growing chicken, -> making the most out of what you have
b.
4)
Forms of Political and Social Organization
Political organization: the means used by a particular society to maintain social control,
including forms of public decision-making, leadership, maintenance of social cohesion and
order, protection of group rights, and safety from external threats
Bands; tribes (uncentralized)
Mostly egalitarian society
No formal leadership, no class differences
Basically just a bunch of people living together
§
No elected leaders, things are ruled by consensus
Chiefdoms; states (centralized)
There is someone in charge
Chiefs are sometimes selected or hereditary
There are formal laws and courts
Distinction between different people in society
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Document Summary

Hwo does understanding this history shed light on legacies of violence (especially re: pastoralism, the state?) Attention to how all of this is relevant for your writing assignment. More assignment tips/ how it will be evaluated. Modes of livelihood and forms of social and political organization. How are these things interrelated as we look at the shift from foraging to swidden ally zation. Mode of livelihood: what people do for subsistence: Includes scavenging -> finding food that other animals have left behind. Nomadic herding (irregular movement from pasture to pasture) a) b) You follow you animals in a random way. Wherever there is pasture, that"s where you go. Transhumance (migration of livestock between permanent seasonal pasture; from highlands to lowland, for example. Tractors, fertilizer, mechanised irrigation systems, genetically modified crops, factory farming, etc. Growing chicken, -> making the most out of what you have.

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