ANTA02H3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 5: History Of Public Transport Ticketing In New South Wales, Microsoft Powerpoint, Consanguinity

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15 Apr 2012
Lecture #5 - February 2, 2010
EXAM (Mid Term) - worth 20% of final mark
- Will write midterm in class
- Multiple choice - based on lecture #1-#5 (Lectures, readings, PDFs, Feeding Desire - Chp.1-5)
- Sample questions posted on Intranet
- Approx. 40 MC questions (2 hours)
- VSI - key terms, important people (memorize and understand- connections)
- PDF Articles - Author, title, main concepts/ content (groups of people, where, argument,
understand/ recognize the argument)
- Feeding Desire - key argument in each chapter, who she is talking about, where they live, major
- Lectures - study off lecture notes/ PowerPoint slides
**feeding desire assignment due by February 26, 2010 (sample assignment posted on Intranet)
- Referencing = from actual book
- Talk about paper with TA’s or during office hours
**No tutorials next week (Feb 8-12)
“Natural” Relationship - relatives/ relations (KINDSHIP, descent patterns, marriage)
Kinship - takes care of your livelihood, reproduction, ideology, career, marriage, who will
protect you, who will show you affection, social identity (how do you matter in a society)
o Shapes aspects of life - marriage, childrearing, labour divisions, etc [industrial societies]
o In non-industrial societies, it is the primary mode of social organization (organizes
people into coherent and meaningful groups that cooperate together)
o Gender and age = group people in all societies
o BASIC FORM OF SOCIAL ORGANIZATION (especially in small scale societies)
o Kinship and social organization closely related/ are the same thing, especially in small
scale societies
Early anthropological work: focused on who was related to who
o Different cultures all have different ways of thinking about kinship (who is related, who
is not related, who is important to who)
o Euro-American - emphasis on BLOOD RELATIONSHIPS (favoured over any other
In other societies, they believe that the people who are blood-related to you are
the ones who will betray you (i.e. competition between family members for
land, money, etc)
o Came up with a classified, organized ways of coming up with kinship systems
Who is your kin?
What are your obligations as that person?
Formal systems
Kinship symbols - need to know the symbols to understand the diagrams (colours don’t
represent anything - only the shapes do)
o Diagonal line through a ‘person’ = death; through an equal sign = divorce
o Square = unknown gender OR EGO
EGO - if you know the gender (=triangle/ circle)
o “lynch-pin” - the person whose kin relation you are trying to figure out (i.e. that triangle
is ego’s brother, etc)
o REFERENCE POINT (generally in the centre of the diagram)
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There must be a way to universally label people from an outsider’s perspective
o ETIC - looking at kinship from an outsider’s perspective
o EMIC - from a native’s perspective (the insider’s perspective)
Etic Kinship Terms
Ego = reference point (square, triangle, circle)
FA = father
MO = mother
BR = brother
Z = sister
H = husband
W = Wife
S =Son
DA = daughter
- Can’t call people by specific terms (i.e. cousin, aunt, etc) because in different perspectives, they
have different meanings and they represent different kinds of relationships
o i.e. |Azawagh Arabs| - Father’s brother’s son = ideal for marriage
Mother’s sister’s son = NOT ideal for marriage
different relations between these people, even though we would see
both as COUSINS
Eskimo Kinship Terms
named after the first group that was found to have this classification system (other people
besides “Eskimos” use this kinship drawing)
Ego = orange square (might be boy or girl) *insider’s perspective - EMIC]
o Ego has a FA, MO, BR, Z
o Ego also has U (uncle), A (aunt), CU (cousins)
o Patrilateral and Matrilateral kin
Standard Euro-American nomenclature
Has unique terms for kin who are part of a nuclear family (don’t use them outside of your
immediate family - i.e. call only one person MO, FA, Z (multiple), BR (multiple))
o **main and most important form of family = NUCLEAR family; social organization (share
a home, provide for each other, shape each other, are responsible for you, etc)
Therefore, they have these specific names (MO/ FA) that aren’t shared by any
other people outside of the nuclear family
o Same terms are used for relatives on both the matrilateral and patrilateral sides
(BILATERAL DESCENT) equally related to people on both sides (in theory)
Only practised in 30% of the world’s culture
60% of the world’s culture use UNILINEAL DESCENT
Unilineal Descent
Recognize descent only through one side (i.e. only mother’s side or only father’s side)
Related to people on both sides, but one side is more important
o You belong to people mainly on one side (inheritance, important, marriage rules/
taboos, relationships, class/ caste = based on the ONE important side)
Act on relationships on both sides in different ways
Azawagh Arabs = patrilinear unilineal descent
Not many matrilineal descent (i.e. Trobriand Islands)
IRIQUOIS Kinship System
Double unilineal descent system
o Ego belongs to the descent of both sides (unilineal on BOTH sides)
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