Lecture 12.pdf

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16 Apr 2012
Complex Civilizations 11-09-19 9:20 AM
Social Structures @ 9 000 YA
Development of surpluses – the ability to have extra; the concept of
control & power begins where people step up and try to control the
Led to more complex civilizations & development of civilization and
modern structures
The more complex, the more specific characteristics
Class system: haves vs. have nots
Government: to control access to surplus & redistribute surplus
Labour: development of artisans due to extra resources, can do
other things
Architecture: announcement of power
Record keeping; system of writing, who has what, what things arw
worth & equivalents
Food & Labor Surplus
More efficient systems develop for farming
Long distance trade begins due to invention of wheel
Social Stratification
Individuals with power by force/influence take control of surplus
and develop idea of a class system
Beginning of mega religions that mirror social stratification within
(i.e. God, angels, etc..)
Formal Government
Powers given by bloodline or authority
Less complex = authority means
More complex = ranking system
Coercion – doing what the elite want them to do
Labor specialization
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In civ. That think they’re great, want to build large monuments to
praise selves, chance for elite class, soldier class, and
artisans/architects who will show the elite power
Palaces, urban centers, temples, etc.
Basically announcement of ruler showing control of people
Dense populations
City/ states first to develop
o Only place to get necessities is where the overflow of
resources are
o Artisans would come
Record Keeping
Developed by state leaders
Only elite could read & write; advantage
Using religious scripture to control masses
Theories of the Emergence of States
Race – civilizations were biologically programmed to eventually become
civilized, if they don’t then there’s something off, I.e. Zimbabwe
Environmental Determinism – if you have a nice enough environment with
everything needed, you will find a civilization; if your region is good then you
didn’t need to develop because life was already good; if region is too harsh,
then civilization is impossible
Urban Revolution* – based on fertile crescent, what drove civilizations to
grow is that once you have specialty artisans, they’re going to want exotic
materials & import exotic materials & export their own. This pushed the
farmers to work harder & faster (+ feedback), more money to access more
materials. Is supposed to explain development of plow & wheel etc.
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