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Lecture

Lecture Slide with Supplementary Notes

5 Pages
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Department
Anthropology
Course Code
ANTB14H3
Professor
Michael Schillaci

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ECOLOGY
The study of the
interrelationship between a
organisms and their
environment.
ENVIRONMENTAL
FACTORS
Climate
Resource availability
Predators
Resource Attributes
Social Environment
Figure 06.01
The day-to-day life of primates is driven by two primary goals:1) find enough
to eat, and 2) avoid being eaten. (3) reproduction)These two goals play an
important role in shaping behavior and social organization in primates, and
likely played an important role in shaping the social organization of our
hominid ancestors.
FOOD
Food provides energy for maintenance of
normal metabolic processes needed for growth,
survival and reproduction
The total amount of energy (calories) needed for any
given primate depends on 4 components
1) Basal Metabolic Rate
2) Activity Level
3) Growth Rate
4) Reproduction/Lactation
The basal metabolic rate (measured in calories) is what is needed to maintain
life when at rest.
Activity levels determine how many calories above and beyond the basal rate
are needed to maintain life.
Growing primates need more energy (per body weight) than do adults
Pregnancy requires greater energy (approx. 25% more), as does lactation
(approx. 50% more)
Figure 06.02
Average basal metabolism is affected by body size. The dashed line
represents a direct linear relationship between body weight and basal
metabolic rate. The solid line represents the actual relationship between
body weight and basal metabolic rate. 7KHIDFWWKDWWKHFXUYH³EHQGV RYHU´
means that larger animals use relatively less energy per unit of body
weight.
Types of Energy
Carbohydrates (sugars and complex
starches)
Fats and oils
Protein
e.g. food, type of food
We need about 900
Week 4
January-27-10
ANTB14H3 Page 1
www.notesolution.com
Types of Energy
Carbohydrates (sugars and complex
starches)
Fats and oils
Protein
Additional Nutritional Requirements
Minerals
±Iron, needed for the production of hemoglobin
Vitamins
±Vitamin D, essential for metabolism of calcium
Figure 06.03
Savanna baboons drink from a pool of rainwater. Most primates must
drink every day.
Primate Diets
Insectivores
Frugivores
Folivores
Gummavores
Primates typically rely more heavily on one type of food than another.
Those that rely primarily on insects are INSECTIVORES
Those that rely primarily on fruit are FRUGIVORES
Those that rely primarily on leaves are FOLIVORES
Those that rely primarily on plant gum are GUMMIVORES
Most prosimians get their protein from insects and their carbohydrates from
gums and fruit.
Most monkeys and apes get their protein from insects and/or young leaves
(more protein than old), and get their carbohydrates from fruit
Figure 06.04
The diets of primates are variable. The black-handed spider monkey is
one of the most dedicated frugivores in the primate order²80% of its
diet consists of fruit. Langurs are among the most folivorous primate
species; more than half of the purple-IDFHG ODQJXUVGLHWLVFRPSRVHG RI
leaves, while fruit and flowers play a much less important role. The
bushbaby is primarily insectivorous, relying on insects for 70% of its
food supply. Macaques have more eclectic diets, feeding on herbs, fruit,
gum and sap, flowers, and leaves.
Figure 06.05a
.$<6
ThresholdCallitrichid?
Body size and diet are related among primates. The smallest species
mainly eat insects and gum, while the largest species eat leaves, seeds,
and herbs. Fruit-eating species fall in between.
.$<67KUHVKROG JUDPV
Primates that rely almost entirely on insects usually weigh less than 500
grams, while primates that rely almost entirely on fruit and/or leaves
are usually more than 500 grams
Vitamin b12 synthesizes protein; mostly found in animal protein
-see p. 129, nutritional sources
---> typo gummivores
ANTB14H3 Page 2
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Description
Week 4 2:41 PM-27-10 ENVIRONMENTAL ECOLOGY FACTORS Climate The study of the Resource availability interrelationship between a organisms and their Predators e.g.food,typeoffood environment. Resource Attributes Social Environment FOOD Figure 06.01 Food provides energy for maintenance of normal metabolic processes needed for growth, survival and reproduction The total amount of energy (calories) needed for any given primate depends on 4 components Weneedabout900 1) Basal Metabolic Rate 2) Activity Level 3) Growth Rate 4) ReproductionLactation The basal metabolic rate (measured in calories) is what is needed to maintain life when at rest. The day-to-day life of primates is driven by two primary goare needed to maintain life.w many calories above and beyond the basal rate toeat, and 2) avoid being eaten. (3) reproduction) These twGrowing primates need more energy (per body weight) than do adults important role in shaping behavior and social organization Pregnancy requires greater energy (approx. 25% more), as does lactation hominid ancestors.mportant role in shaping the social organ(approx. 50% more) Figure 06.02 Types of Energy Carbohydrates (sugars and complex starches) Fats and oils Protein Average basal metabolism is affected by body size. The dashed line metabolic rate. The solid line represents the actual relationship between bodyweight and basal metabolic rate. %K01,.99K,99K0.:7;0-0384;07 means that larger animals use relatively less energy per unit of body weight. www.notesolution.com
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