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Lecture 2

ANTB14H3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: Sister Chromatids, Punnett Square, Mitosis

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Michael Schillaci

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Bio Anthro lecture 2
Development of evolutionary concepts continued
-Before this they did not know how traits were passed on from one generation to another
till Mendel came in
-Gregor Mendel
-Father of genetics
-Studied trait inheritance in common pea plants
- experimented with 7 traits - pod colour, $ower colour and skin surface (round,
smooth, wrinkled)
- grade 12 bio - through generations and then cross bred
-His research ultimately revealed mechanisms of hereditary
-Each o*spring takes one traits from each parent
-Dominant and recessive traits
-Punnett squares
-Heterozygous - have one dominant and one recessive alleles - meaning di*erent
-Homozygous - meaning the same - have two of the same alleles
Chapter 2
Inheritance and biological evolution
-Chromosomes - molecules containing genes
-Mitosis - cellular division to replicate cells
- creates daughter cells that have the same number of chromosomes as the
parent cell
- daughter cells are genetically the same
-Meiosis - cellular division to create daughter cells with 1/2 DNA as parent cell
- produces sex cells
-Gamete - sex cells
-DNA has codes for phenotypic characteristics
-Teleomeres - caps at the end of the DNA that keeps everything together
-Chromotids - the bunny ear shape - both sides are exactly the same
Mitosis and meiosis
- Creates Diploid cells - genetically the same cells - they each have a sister
chromotid from each parent cell - so exactly the same as the parent cell
- Creates haploid cells - only one copy with each di*erent DNA
- 23 pairs - 46 chromosomes
-22 pairs are autosomes
- The last pair is the sex chromosomes - XX and XY for female and male
-Recombination - have both maternal and paternal DNA
- genetic material from the two parent cells combine together again and form new
DNA that will eventually divide again to create the daughter haploid cells
- crossing over the chiasm - when you cross over the sister chromatids are no
longer genetically the same because one side has DNA from the other chromosome
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-In the end you have new cells that all contain di*erent genetic makeup which is why you
don’t look exactly like your siblings
DNA: blueprint for life
-Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
-Hereditary material in cell
-Double helix shape
-Composed of four nucleotide bases - Adenine, Cytosine, Guanine, Thymine
-G combines with C
-A combines with T
-Nucleotide - sugar, phosphate and a base
- a sugar phosphate bond that is connected to a base that pairs with other
nucleotides through a hydrogen bond (hydrogen bond is not that strong)
-Codons - the combination of three nucleotides
-DNA is easy to unzip that’s why hydrogen bonds are weak
-Messanger RNA - transports copy into cytoplasm - thymine is replaced with something
called uracil
-Transfer RNA - reads messanger RNA in ribo
Protein formation
-RNA - single stranded nucleic acid
-Transcription - process by which genetic information from DNA is transformed into RNA
-Translation - process by which genetic information coded in various forms of RNA
translated into protein
Transcription and translation
-First unzips - messenger RNA makes copies and T turns to U  into cytoplasm  into
-Anti-codon codes for an amino acid and a chain is built to create a protein
-Random process whereby there is an alteration in the nucleotide sequence
-Error or change in a nucleotide sequence
-Results of four thing
1) copying errors in cell division
2) exposure to radiation
3) exposure to mutagens
4) exposure to viruses
-Ultimate source of new genetic materials in population
-Randomly occurring process
-Somatic cells mutations VS Germ cell (gametes) mutation in terms of relevance to
evolutionary anthro
-Can be neutral, harmful or bene>cial for organism
- most mutations are neutral and there is no harm on phenotype
-This changes allele frequency and can cause a completely new species to occur
- germ cells - the production of new o*spring with new genes
Hypothetical mutation - antibiotic resistance in bacteria
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