ANTB15H3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 7: Common Cold, Child Mortality, Abundant Number

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8 Dec 2013
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Tuberculosis- November 11, 2013 Lecture 7
The Captain of Men of Death
Tuberculosis (TB) is a contagious disease which infects nearly 9 million
people annually - one every second - and kills over 2.5 million people every
year - or one every 15 seconds!
Social Conditions
context of women’s lives; women as primary caregivers
Women spending most of their time at home exposed to the sick
Physiological Differences
The onset of childbearing (possible stressor)
Symptoms of cough and sputum expectoration less common in women
delay in treatment seeking (Long et al., 2002)
Bovine (M. bovis)
Possible that human TB is a mutant of bovine form
Cattle first domesticated in Neolithic (6000-7000 B.C.) in the Old
World - suggestions that TB became an endemic human disease at this
time.
Drinking unpasteurized milk will cause TB
Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Non-motile, rod-shaped bacillus
Covered in ‘waxy sheath’
Does not produce any
significant toxin
Multiplies slowly (6-12 hrs)
Can survive outside of human host
Can survive dessication
4,000-gene sequence or genome of the
TB bacillus.
In a 24hr period an infected host can expel 2-4 billion bacilli
Immune system response - only a fraction of those infected will develop
active disease
Influence of genetics
Optimal Conditions for Transmission
Overcrowding
Poor personal hygiene
Poor public hygiene
TB: an opportunistic disease
Robert Koch: made a discovery : I know what causes TB -> bacillus
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Ex. of a disease becoming less problematic with no intervention
So, what’s happening? : people are becoming more immune
Those people who are less susceptible are those that are the ones who survived
At the very end of the wave, they’re all immune to the disease
At some point everyone gets sick and they die
Crisis Mortality as an Agent of Change
o the sudden and dramatic increase in the death rate arising from a common,
unusual causal factor operating for a limited period
o Can be triggered by a number of events: famine, flood, drought, war,
epidemic, smog!
Proxy Indicators of Health
Morbidity sickness
Mortality deaths
Mortality or Death Rate
[total number of deaths/population at risk]
Expressed as a proportion or in some cases as a rate
Mortality Patterns some Generalizations
In most western industrialized countries or “resource rich” countries there
has been a progressive decline in the death rate
The improvement in health varies from one population to the next
Uniqueness of the mortality experience
The decline occurred before modern medical biomedicine
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