ANTB18H3 Lecture Notes - Viceroy, Túpac Amaru Ii, Chaos 2

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Published on 20 Apr 2013
School
UTSC
Department
Anthropology
Course
ANTB18H3
Professor
January 24th, 2012
Latin America Anthropology Week 3
Indigenous Responses to Conquest
Review from last week:
Two mentalities:
“enslavement” *Columbus+
>gold
>ingegenous people = not human, enslaveable, objects
and “colonialism” * Las casas+
>instead of gold, gold
>inegenous people are also people
>he wanted to treat indigenous people because the indigenous people can become Christian
>assimilation
Reasons for Victory (some stuff from last week)
[how the Spaniards took over these complex people]
Conventional explainations:
1. Lack of indigenous action
2. Spanish exploitation of indigenous rivalries
3. Spanish military superiority
Todorov’s 4th reason:
1. Lost control of signs
>They were judging Spaniards based off previous conquests
>they did not recognize the differences
The basic structure of early colonial society
- Viceroyalities
>gave a control over these terretories to the viceroyalty who operates in the capital city
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>>from the vice royalty, you go down to different administrators
- “Dual Republic” model
>a republic of the Spaniards and the republic of the Indians
>>two governing structures
>>>the world in the Americas divided into a bi lateral thing
>>>>>Indians saw themselves as a single unit for the first time (in relation to everyone else)
>>>>>>>this classification was enforced through structures
- tribute (head tax)
>Indians had to pay this
>>even in equator, 80% of the state’s revenue came from tribute
>>>structures heavily enforced it because they needed the money badly
- Ecomiendas - > haciendas
> haviendas = lasting structures of the colonial and post-colonial societies
[look up encomiendas]
- Reduccionnes
>reductions (Indian reserves)
>>large settlements that were organized in a way so that tribute collection was easy
>>>also labour drafts (sent to work in the mines)
- Mit’a
>labour debt
>>something that is owed to the inca lord
>>>all these policies are similar to the Incas
>>>>>except the Spaniards didn’t treat them nice
>>>>>>Incas practiced good will because this colonized nation were to become Incas
- Diezmos
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Document Summary

>ingegenous people = not human, enslaveable, objects and colonialism * las casas+ >he wanted to treat indigenous people because the indigenous people can become christian. Reasons for victory (some stuff from last week) [how the spaniards took over these complex people] Conventional explainations: lack of indigenous action, spanish exploitation of indigenous rivalries, spanish military superiority. Todorov"s 4th reason: lost control of signs. >they were judging spaniards based off previous conquests. >gave a control over these terretories to the viceroyalty who operates in the capital city. >>from the vice royalty, you go down to different administrators. >a republic of the spaniards and the republic of the indians. >>>the world in the americas divided into a bi lateral thing. >>>>>indians saw themselves as a single unit for the first time (in relation to everyone else) >>even in equator, 80% of the state"s revenue came from tribute. >>>structures heavily enforced it because they needed the money badly.

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