ANTB19H3 Lecture Notes - Ethnography, Animism, Participant Observation
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•Out of 19th and into 20th century administrative and bureaucratic institutions came to play
a disruptive role in the lives of people throughout the world as they were reconstituted as
subjects of colonial rule and emerging nation states.
•During the first half of 20th century break-up of Ottoman Empire let to diaspora of people.
Led to many forms of violence largely due to poverty and threat of starvation
•To bring rebel Nuer under control, they bombed their important cattle. Caused starvation,
•Starvation and racist ideologies (connotated that the Nuer people were more primitive
and less intelligent) that lead to terror and discrimination.
•Ethnonationalist exclusions orchestrated by emerging states and empires. Ex: Germany
with rise of nationalist party. Ex2: Quebec with nationalist pride.
•When cultural pride becomes nationalist pride there is a sort of strategy and exclusion
•When Ottoman Empire began to fall apart, modern warfare was also invented.
•Most extreme form of violence from this reaction to colonial rule was ethnic cleansing.
•Sultinate of Egypt (also included parts of Sudan) and Palestine were both British
Protectorates around time of Ottoman collapse.
•Britain divided Sudan into a predominantly Arabic north and Sub-saharan, Animist South.
This created further tensions and conflict between ethnicities.
•In South (where Nuer is), with more tribal groups, they sent in district commissioners
who ruled directly. Christian missionaries also sent in to convert. North did not have
people come in to rule because it had dynasties in place.
•Missionaries subjugated Nuer because they were having difficult time, so they enlisted
help from anthropologist.
•Evans-Pritchard’s approach was different from the categorization and objective approach
of other anthropologists.
• Nuer were hostile to British because they bombed their cattle, tried to restrict their
movement, and sent out army to look for prophets.
•EP was not just an anthro., he was a member of conquering group.
•It was the re-conquest of Sudan in 1869 that led to this study of Nuer in 1930.
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