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Lecture

ANTC17H3 Lecture Notes - Homo Habilis, Strepsirrhini, Lorisoidea


Department
Anthropology
Course Code
ANTC17H3
Professor
Genevieve Dewar

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Primates
Grasping thumbs
Infant dependency
Stereoscopic vision, vision is dominance
Calvacle
Large brain to body size
Arboreal mammals
Typically one young per pregnancy
Traits
-
Ie. Morphology used for certain
behaviours were adapted to the
same bahaviours in the past
Idea that things that behave the way they
do today, they did so in the past
Uniformitarianism
Simplest explanation is usually the
correct one
Occam's Razor
Behaviour and environment concepts
-
Post orbital bar
Forward position of the eyes
Y5, 2:1:2:3
Reduced number of teeth
Dental formula
Brain size compared to body
Nails instead of claws
Opposable thumbs
Clavicles
Hind limb domination
Elongation of the heel
5 digits on both front and back limbs
Tendency to be upright
How can we identify these traits
-
Morphological differences in apes is directly
related to locomotion and usage
2:1:2:3
Humans have the most drastic change in
dentition of all primates c
Dentition
Taxonomy
-
Functional Morphology
Related to diet
Enamel thickness
-
Type of primate (ie. OWM v. Apes)
Bilophodent (Shearing) vs. simple molars
(low rounded cusps)
Dental shape
-
A = Monkey; D = Gorilla; B = Homo
Erectus; C = Homo Habilis
Microscopic photos that can tell you
what they eat
Dental microwear
-
Kay's threshold (500g)
Browsers v. Grazers (C3 vs. C4) [Trees vs.
Grass]
Inferring body size by diet
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Primate Tree
Earliest mammals were very small,
branching off from rodent ancestors
After Cretaceous (dinosaurs) opened up new
habitats; adaptive radiation
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Strepsirrhini
Wet nosed primates
-
Elongated snout
Dominated by sense of smell
-
Post-orbital bar
-
Toothcomb
-
Nocturnal with large orbits
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Lorisiformes, Lemuriformes, Chiromyiformes
(Aye-Aye)
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Most live in Madagascar (some in S.E. Asia)
-
Technically primates, but still retain many
primitive traits
-
Haplorrhini
Dry nosed
-
No rhinarium
-
Post-orbital plate
-
Reduction in snouts
-
Diurnal
-
Generalized hands and feet
-
Almost all nails
-
Specializations more linked to locomotion
-
Increased brain size to body size
-
Simiiformes subdivided into Platyrrhini
and Catyrrhini
Tarsiiformes and Simiiformes
-
Platyrrhini
Flat noses with side facing nostrils
-
NWM
-
Prehensile tails
-
Mostly arboreal
-
Separation must have been before the
OWM/A lost the premolar
Primitive dental formula (2:1:3:3)
-
Rafting theory
-
Many develop monogamous pair bonds
-
Broad nostrils compared to Catarrhines
-
Lack an ear tube
-
Catarrhini
OWM and Apes (inc. humans)
-
Narrow nosed species
-
Diurnal
-
Dental formula of 2:1:2:3
-
Exceptions: Gibbons and Siamangs,
Humans
Most sexually dimorphic
-
Typically ground dwelling animals
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Hominoids
Great Apes and their ancestors
-
(Within this group are the hominins, from
chimps forward)
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Large bodied
-
Tailless
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Mostly Quadrapedal
-
Some tool use
-
2:1:2:3 formula AND a Y5 cusp pattern
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Locomotion
Longer tail
Equal limb length
Arboreal Quadrupeds
-
Longer hind limbs
Long hands
Leapers (arboreal/terrestrial)
-
Gibbons/orangutans
Short back
Very long arms relative to legs
Hands permenantly curved
Suspensary Apes
-
Long legs and short arms
Bipedal apes
-
More on slides
-
Earliest Primates
Plesiadapiformes in Palaeocene, warm environment
-
Adapidae (Strepsirrhini) and Tarsiiformes (Haplorrhini)
Mostly insectivores
Almost totallyarboreal
From Haloarctic (northern extremes)
Post orbital bar; post orbital constriction, expanded brain cage, still
snout present
Prosimian[Older terminology] Adaptive radiation in the Eocene
-
Primitive strepsirrhini
Small orbits
Elongated faces
>1kg
Big and diurnal, opposite from strepsirrhini today
Adapids
-
Primitive haplorrhini
Large orbits
Short faces and reduced dentition
<500kg
Small and nocturnal, opposite from Haplorrhini today
Tarsiiformes
-
Fossil specimen 2009, most complete Adapid specimen so far
Nails instead of claws
Forward facing eyes
Long tail, curved fingers (arboreal)
Doesn't tell anything we didn't know already
IDA
-
Early Primates, Anatomy, and Paleobiology
February-01-12
1:10 PM
ANTC17 Page 1
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