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Homo Heidelbergensis, Neanderthalensis, Floresiensis

Course Code
Genevieve Dewar

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Homo Antecessor
'Made up' species; thought to be h. erectus in Europe
Fits timeline to erectus, but thinks that there was too much
time difference between the two
1.2mya - 800kya
Primarily in Spain; Erectus in Asia; Ergaster in Africa
Almost all of old world been colonized
Middle Pleistocene (780-128kya)
Atapuerca region of Spain; Gran Dolina
Much of specimens are limited; inferrance of
1.2-mya - 800kya
Occipital bun; not a long/low vault with
saggital keel
Hallmarks of AMH and Neanderthal traits
Lower forehead; more human-like trait
Looks like ergaster, but with a bun, and "wrong"
time and location for ergaster
More post-cranial remains as opposed to
cranial remains
1.8m tall
Robust, male ~200lb
Site discovered in 2008
Sima Del Elefante
Around on planet for at least 1my
Find de-fleshing marks on skulls
Potential ritual marking of the dead
Implication of ideology, and social
More evidence for lateralization of
the brain
Similar potential for language,
communication, culture
Ears similar to that of H. sapiens;
frequency and range of audition same as
Mine where they found a skull and long
Only one sample
Long low brain case with a lip; no occipital
May be an indication of species variation
Similar to ergaster but with large brain case
Pronounced brow ridges
Distinct occipital bun
Less robust that antecessor but more robust
than humans
1.8m tall
Found in England to Greece
Same to ergaster but with larger brain size
Some think that African form is another
Heidlebergensis as a common ancestor of
sapiens and neanderthals
Considered ancestor of Neanderthals
Anatomically modern?
Acheulian-like industry with similar tools
Same inner-ear bone morphology
Used in cave art, ritual
Potential for complex social
behaviour, but it also can be a
practical thing for making weapons
Associated with red ochre in France
Java man Ngandong skull
Deserts, Australia, Arctic, North and South America
No evidence of early archaics in most marginal regions of
Warmer and wetter seasons
Saharan pump
Stadials are when most migration occurs
Multi-regional v. Out of Africa
Multiple models for how Erectus eventually
becomes Humans
Wolpoff et al. noted similarities within regions
Idea of multiple origins of homo sapiens
Maintained that there was gene flow
All archaics are capable of gene flow between
Criticized for traits only that fit his model
Mungo Man (40kya) had mDNA from a lineage
with no descendants
Trinkhaus suggested that Neanderthal traits
were passed to Europeans
If there is only one source of H. sapiens there
would be a genetic bottleneck
Link to lineage 1 in Africa which then
spread in different ways
Fossil evidence to corroborate this
African eve study; study to show lineages and
population movement
Genetics: humans are more similar to each
other than the neanderthals
No interbreeding with other archaic humans
One specimen, only mDNA
Out of variability range based on common
ancestor at 300-800kya
Compared modern sample (African) to
Neanderthal (Europe)
Africans did not interbreed with Neanderthals
Krings et al. 1997
Originally considered to be two 'types' of
neanderthals, but they chronologically overlap
130-30kya; Potentially 20kya in Gibralter
First found in 1856
Northern Europe, some in Middle East
Retro-molar space
Mid-facial prognathism
Warming cold air in to lungs
More likely it's warming hot air
when breathing out
Part of cold adaptation?
Large nasal aperture
Occipital bun
Fairly robust brow ridges, small forehead
Different muscle attatchments to scapula
good for throwing
Larger rib cage
Large feet
Key features in anatomy
No overlap in geography of humans
Humans lived on top of hill tops in the
Cave sites, large territories
Skilled hunters, large game, spears
Burrying of dead in Shanidar
Looked after the weak
Advanced tool technology in the Mousterian
Fetal position covered in white powder;
flower pollen, potentially indicating
flowers on and around the burial
Pollen is from medicinal plants
Skeleton number one
Half of head is caved in, yet it is healed
Arm whithered and yet it was healed
Someone had to be caring for this
Must have been using teeth to carry and
move things, indicated by wear patterns
Shanidar number four
Homo Floresiensis
94kya? Or 38-13kya
Liang Bua Cave in Flores
Indonesian-Australian group
Size of Australopithecines
1m tall; 380cc
7 individuals
Micro-lithic tool industry used to hunt
Stegadon (Tiny mammoths)
Small tools and Stegadon
Things will only grow to the size their
environment can sustain
Island Dwarfism
Similar to pygmies or "wild men" from
Jacobs - determined it was a human who was
CT Scans and testings of skull indicate size is not
Middle Paleolithic Tool Types
Increase to 63 tool types in the Mousterian
Levallois technique
Shift from core industry to a flake/blade industry
Take core, prepare core, allowing for
standardization of flake removal particularly
in thickness
'Tortoise shell' preparation involving
cleaning edges and tops to make it defined
on both sides
Hard hammer percussion striking parallel to
the core (sideways instead of down)
Results in a thinner, controlled flake
Most of the time the flake with have
negative scars on the outside
Trying to produce a convergent point
Methods of creation
Bordes - Cultural and stylistic differences
Binford - Functional differences
Different stages of tool use
Harold Dibble - Potentially a bit of both
Explanations of variability in material, tool type, etc.
Neanderthal Behaviour
Donkey with Levallois point imbedded in
Umm el-Tlelm, Syria
Hunting of reindeer, possibly horse and
Cutmarks on the meatiest bones, high utility
Combe Grenal, France
Clacton on the Sea, UK (350kya)
Wooden Spears
Idea of central home, place to stay where elderly,
young, etc. were being cared for
Sites within France with recurring hearth lines
'Activity areas' within caves where certain things
were being done
Potential for making shelters
To date, oldest shelters are 20kya
Post Holes?
"Home Bases"
Personal ornamentation, jewelry, after
humans are already in the area - imitation of
Not a lot of evidence for Neanderthals, but
clearly a lot for human culture
Evidence for symbolism
Symbolism and Language
Homo Heidelbergensis, Neanderthalensis, Floresiensis
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