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Lecture

ANTC17H3 Lecture Notes - Australopithecine, Zooarchaeology, Ardipithecus


Department
Anthropology
Course Code
ANTC17H3
Professor
Genevieve Dewar

Page:
of 2
Models for Behaviour: Great Apes
Trait shared by two or more
species through inheritance from
a common ancestor
Homologies
-
Trait shared by two or more
species that is similar in function
but unrelated evolutionarily
Analogies
-
Use the idea of uniformitarianism
-
Ex. Sexual Dimorphism = Harems;
Lack of sexual Dimorphism in
Gibbons = monogamous pairs;
Large canine teeth = male
competition over females
Gorilla model = P. Boisei
Type correlations between anatomy
and behaviour
-
Friendship - part of social
behaviour
Food sharing - Contradicts
ideas about survival of the
fittest; socially based
Shared traits with humans
Everything from the split
onward will have this,
including
australopithecines
5my divergence; traits probably
already existed in a common
ancestor
Chimpanzees
-
Social interaction based on
individual recognition
Strong bond based on family
relationships
Implication of home bases with
groups going out to get resources
and coming back
Long term friendships
Sexual consciousness
Mutual care within the group
Recognition and defence of
group
More traits shared
-
Models for Behaviour: Modern
Hunter-Gatherers
Subsist on what is naturally
available; no agriculture or
domestication aside from dogs
-
High levels of mobility because of a
search for food, hunt in seasonal
cycles
-
Nuclear families within a larger
group
-
Only division of labour is
between the sexes
Egalitarianism
-
Food sharing
-
Entire population of h. sapiens were
H-G until about 12,000 years ago
with agricultural revolution
-
Multiple individuals
living for a time of up to
three years
Looked at various social
and behavioural
practices
"Man the Hunter" -
Assumed that all
calories men were
consuming came from
hunting, but majority of
caloric intake came
from the women
gathering
Data that we can't
apply to an
archaeological situation
is ideological belief
systems
Dobe !Kung - Bushmen of
Botswana Africa studied by
Richard Lee and the Harvard
expedition
Quantitative
approach to
debris and
artifacts
Hunting
strategies based
on how many and
what kind of
bones were at a
site
Processual Archaeology
Study of animal
remains on sites
Zooarchaeology
Complex social
interaction, avid
hunters
Librets and seal coats
Close enough to coast
to be able to move to
the coast to hunt
whales and seals but
primarily hunted
caribou
Close to
communicate
Worked on
masks/tools
Allows for
indication
of sitting
location
When eating,
large chunks of
bones would be
tossed behind
them in to the
toss zone; smaller
bones were just
dropped where
they were sitting
Drew how they would
sit around the camp
and socialize
Nunamuit of Alaska studied
by Lewis Binford who
focussed on
ethnoarchaeology and
subsistence strategies
Group of
individuals in
base plant; day
paths go out in
Concept of storage
differentiates simple v.
complex foragers
Means to test level of
complexity
Examples
-
Australopithecines
5.5 - 1 MYA (Pliocene, part of Pleistocene)
-
Orrorin tugensis, ardipithecus,
schelanthropus
In Australopithecines same thing occuring
Lumping
-
Rapid cooling and drying, transformation of the
world
-
Grass forming, adaptation for its consumption
-
Occurs partially because of transformation
of climate
Mediterranean drying up; land bridge
Breaking up and shrinkage of forests
Creation of a mosaic environment with more
open areas with forest patches
5mya bipedalism is more common
-
Smaller canine teeth, less dimorphism
in relation to teeth at beginning of
Pliocene
Development of specialists; different
from historic adaptations of primates
which is of generalists
Change in diet = change in dentition
The climactic change results in disappearance of
food sources
-
Mostly E. and S. Africa
-
Apelike brain
-
Bipedal on the ground
-
Curved fingers; still some times in the trees
-
Bipedalism
Grass prescence? Too large for trees?
No longer as much time in trees
-
Advantages
Disadvantages
Hands free for
gathering/carrying
More likely to be seen by
predators
Expending less
calories; more
efficient for long
walking
Unable to run quickly and
efficiently
Cooling mechanism
Exposes soft underbelly
See greater distances
for safety and foraging
Interferes with ability to
change direction instantly
while running
Ability of males to
help with child rearing
Unable to adapt when
limb is lost
Ability to follow
herbivores around
Back problems and
circulatory issues
Habitual walking, not quickly
Noticed when studying h. erectus and
recognizing how they can run quickly
unlike australopithecines
Fast running, associated morphology
Fast bipedalism
Types of bipedalism:
-
Australopithecine/Paranthropines
Bipedal
-
Large bodied
-
Tailless
-
Partially arboreal
-
Seems to be victims of these tools but
unclear
Possible tool use and fire
-
2:1:2:3; Y5
-
Thick enamel and sexual dimorphism
-
Species Studied: Primitive Australopithicines
~5mya
East Africa
Small front teeth, large back teeth
Parallel dental rows/ not parabolic
Apelike dentition
Brain ~300cc
Almost like bipedal chimpanzees
Anamensis
-
~5mya
Chad
Modern looking dental arcade (parabolic)
Bahrelghazali
-
~3mya
East Africa
"Lucy"
Debate as to if Afarensis or
early homo
"First family"
Found near leatoli by John Hanson
All three markers for bipedalism
Primarily found in Hadar
Size, inscisors/canines
Extreme sexual dimorphism
U-shaped dental arcade
Pronounced brow ridges and extreme post
orbital constriction
Very prognathic
Flaring cheek bones
Afarensis
-
Gracile Australopithicines
3.9-2mya in East Africa; 3.5-2.3 mya in South
africa
-
Erect bipeds 1-1.5m in height
-
Apelike skull, larger brains
-
More human like dentition
-
Species:
South Africa
Lime mine
Jouvenille with baby teeth
Endocast image of brain case
Taung Child
Thought to be an adult woman, but
is actually a young male
Mrs. Ples
Not accepted right away because of
the piltdown man controversy
First to be called an australopithecus
Much more gracile
Africanus
-
Robust Forms
1.8-1mya
Thick bones for their size, large saggital
crests, allowing for huge muscles
Massive dentition
Convergent evolution in gorillas and
hominins
South Africa
Saggital Crest
Enormous back teeth
Found crushed, so this is a best
reconstruction
Paranthropus Robustus
South Africa
-
2.5-1.3 mya
More massive skull and larger body size
than South African forms
Enormous dentition
East Africa
-
Massive saggital crest
Manganese within it making it
black
Black skull
Reversion to more primitive traits
Paranthropus Aethiopicus
Chad
Large brown ridges, post-orbital
constriction
Specimens found in association to
tools and bone with cut marks but is
not considered to be the creator or
user of these items
Australopithecus Garhi
Dear Boy
Olduvai gorge in East Africa
Thought to be the 'missing link'
Credit for tool use, etc. given
Found h. habilis next year in the
same place
Paranthropus Boisei
Species:
-
Australopithecines
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ANTC17 Page 1
paths go out in
different
directions every
day, bringing
them back, and
only move the
camp when the
immediate
returns is no
longer available -
no storage =
Simple
Rather than
moving the
camp when
resources
are scarce,
they send
out
specialized
collectors
to get
things that
were
previously
cached.
Collectors/logistic
al foragers =
delayed return
strategy
Modern H-G are not primitive
peoples; they have the same
potential for social and
technological complexity
Contact and trade between H-
G and other groups,
interaction with non-HGs
Use culture to adapt
Prone to make archaeological
material match ethnographic
record
Social Anthropologists don't
record things that are
relevant to what
archaeologists study
Don't get at ideology or
specific cultural behaviours
Issues with these models
-
Credit for tool use, etc. given
to habilis
same place
Similar lifestyle and social behaviour
as gorillas
Tubers consumed, allowed to
live on the landscape with
early homos because of their
specialization
Law of competitive exclusion;
weren't using the same niche
as more advanced species
Thought to have over-specialized
Very unclear as to lineage
In E. africa, it seems that gracile --->
Robust
In S. africa, either gracile ---> robust
(convergent evolution) OR E. african
robust ----> S. african robust
Gracile-Robust relationship
-
Likely robust forms are side branch not
the ancestors of homo (possibly gracile
forms)
Law of competitive exclusion
Co-existed with each other for 1.5 my
Robust-Homo relationship
-
Spent some time in the trees; not habitual
bipeds
Still retain a very ape-like brain;
bipedalism is before brain size
Two facts about australopithecines
-
Bipedalism
Tool use
Brain size increased
Shifts in evolution
-
Associated with tools, potentially used
them or had them used upon them
Hand bones indicate they were capable of
making these stone tools and using them
Could have used wooden tools, stones, or
animal bones
Australopithecines and Tools
-
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