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Lecture

Chapter 10-12.docx

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Department
Anthropology
Course Code
ANTC34H3
Professor
Genevieve Dewar

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Chapter 10-12
Lower Pleistocene 1.8 mya to 780,000 ya
-Homo erectus / ergaster
Middle Pleistocene 780,000 to 128,000 ya
-Homo erectus and Early Archaic Homo Sapiens
Upper Pleistocene 128,000 to 20,000
-Late Archaic (including Neanderthals) & Modern Homo Sapiens
PLEISTOCENE THE GREAT ICE AGE
Homo ergaster (“workman”)
1.9 1.4 mya from East and South Africa
Smaller and smaller brain (700-850cc) than Homo Erectus
2 mya started using fire and Acheulian tools
Bifacial hand axes which proved dexterous hands and cognitive thinking (lasted over 1my)
Tool industry
When you date tools, you are dating sediments lying around the tool
Achelian industry is more advanced than Olduwan
Oldewan had 5 types of stone tools, in Achelian they had 10
Nariokatome Boy Most complete skeleton
12 years old boy who is taller than modern humans (6 ft.)
Adapted to equatorial life built for running, sweat easier because they’re tall so
greater surface area of skins
Homo erectus ergaster georgicus
Dmanisi, Georgia 1.8 mya
Cranial capacity of 534 c
Greater within species variation than expected
M1 > M2 > M3
Made discovered that Homo Habilis and Homo rudolfensis
Homo Erectus
2-0 0.5 mya?
Europe and Aisa
Found in ukoudian Cave
Brain size of 850-1000c
Homo erectus and ergasters are first homos to leave Africa
Saharan pump assuming they had fire and their envioronment is fluctuating, there would have
been times where it was more wet. The sahara would have been vast grasslands, and middle east
walso had grasslands, so they move into those areas when it is wet and go back and forth leading
to some homo erectus and herbivores staying in asia or mirgrate further in asia instead of staying
in Africa.
How do we know? 1.8 mya Dmanisi fossils, and 1.4 mya Ubeidiya, Isreal lithics (covered in hand
axes)
In southeast Aisa, we found 1.6 mya chopper tools, found 800,000 fossils from Flores Island

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Description
Chapter 10-12 Lower Pleistocene 1.8 mya to 780,000 ya -Homo erectus / ergaster Middle Pleistocene 780,000 to 128,000 ya -Homo erectus and Early Archaic Homo Sapiens Upper Pleistocene 128,000 to 20,000 -Late Archaic (including Neanderthals) & Modern Homo Sapiens PLEISTOCENE – THE GREAT ICE AGE Homo ergaster (“workman”) 1.9 – 1.4 mya from East and South Africa Smaller and smaller brain (700-850cc) than Homo Erectus 2 mya started using fire and Acheulian tools Bifacial hand axes which proved dexterous hands and cognitive thinking (lasted over 1my) Tool industry When you date tools, you are dating sediments lying around the tool Achelian industry is more advanced than Olduwan Oldewan had 5 types of stone tools, in Achelian they had 10 Nariokatome Boy – Most complete skeleton 12 years old boy who is taller than modern humans (6 ft.) Adapted to equatorial life – built for running, sweat easier because they’re tall so greater surface area of skins Homo erectus ergaster georgicus Dmanisi, Georgia 1.8 mya Cranial capacity of 534 c Greater within species variation than expected M1 > M2 > M3 Made discovered that Homo Habilis and Homo rudolfensis Homo Erectus 2-0 – 0.5 mya? Europe and Aisa Found in ukoudian Cave Brain size of 850-1000c Homo erectus and ergasters are first homos to leave Africa Saharan pump – assuming they had fire and their envioronment is fluctuating, there would have been times where it was more wet. The sahara would have been vast grasslands, and middle east walso had grasslands, so they move into those areas when it is wet and go back and forth leading to some homo erectus and herbivores staying in asia or mirgrate further in asia instead of staying in Africa. How do we know? – 1.8 mya Dmanisi fossils, and 1.4 mya Ubeidiya, Isreal – lithics (covered in hand axes) In southeast Aisa, we found 1.6 mya chopper tools, found 800,000 fossils from Flores Island In China, we found 2mya choppers in Longgupo but only 600,000 ya-fossils Behavior – 400,000 ya Schoningen, Germany. They had a kill-site and was advanced, had 2 meters long of wooden spears. They threw weapons and preserved wood and dried meat (form of storage). 350,000 ya to 200,000 ya: Archaics Different names in different places – Africa – Homo rhodesiensis, Europe – Homo heidelbergensis (500 kya?), Aisa – Java man, Ngandong skulls Homo heidelbergensis – 500 to 400 kya, less robust than Homo erectus. But more robust than Homo sapiens. Gracile Had brain size of 1300cc, 6 ft. tall Traveled from England to Greece Homo rhodesiensis Broken HILL, Kabwe Zambia 350-125 kya 1300 cc brain Had similar traits with Homo ergaster, but larger braincase Their behaviour – Acheulian, tool industry maintained They may have done cannibalism, wounds on faces. Pit of bones (buried or washed in) Had dominate hands, middle and outer ear bone same as Homo Sapiens, frequency and range of audition same as Homo Sapiens Starting to have language or reason? Homo neandertalensis – first found in 1856 in Neander Valley, Germany Clearly lived in various regions from the middle east to western Europe from 130 to 30 kya Comparative anatomy – Homo erectus has pointy back brain, Neandertals had a bun, Homo Sapiens has a chin, and flat forehead. Neandertals has a retro molar space (didn’t have problem with wisdom teeth). Neandertals were fit to live in the cold, short body, they were active and could release hot air better. They had bizarre extra bone built up on shoulder blade, probably throwing weapons more than we do. Neanderthals used spearheads and made them in a standardized way called levellois, they are taking their core and shaping it in a specific way, knocking off flakes on edges. Found all over Europe and in Africa which in interesting because they are not found in Africa period but technique is migrated to Africa somehow. Had 63 Palaeolithic tool types. Neanderthal behavior – Lived in caves, large territories. They were skilled hunters, large game, spears. Buried the dead, looked after the weak (Shanidar), and had advanced tool technology. Homo Floresiensis – the hobbit (94 kya?) 38 – 13kya, found in Liang Bua Cave, Flores. Indonesi
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