Class Notes (1,000,000)
CA (620,000)
UTSC (30,000)
Anthropology (1,000)

ANTC41H3 Lecture Notes - Plasmodium Falciparum, Point Mutation, Common Cold

Course Code
Larry Sawchuk

of 5
Lecture 2 Human Adaptation ANTC41
Types of Biological adaptation
More sensical to study adaptation
Major issues to studying humans,
Climatic stress
People have to acclimatize,Adapt habituate to a major crisis.
Major problem of studying crisis situation.
1) ethics – some times it may be not the right place to do a survey
ie: In Haiti, or in a war/poverty striken country
Expectation that you should help while there, but helping may compromise your
issue of helping one group versus another group.
2) Language barrier
For Humans..Another significant type of adaptation..: Slide
Cultural and technological adaptation
**** EXAM QUESTION: What does ameliorate mean= to make something better
In Haiti, their cell phones are the only way of communication
Cultural and technological adaptation
we are resourceful, as opposed to Haiti.
Cultural and technological adaptation-slide 19
Adaptation that is irreversible
Born with a particular ailment, therefore you cannot change it.
Ie: Acquire adaptation to a disease, because you inherit it =those with sickle cell anemia
develop adaptation to malaria
When malaria is constantly there in a specific population its called endemic.
Common cold is an infectious disease that is endemic
Disease that is epidemic=west nile
Swine flu
Africa: particular region they suffer from sickle cell disease.
Sickle cell disease and anemia occurs in Canada
Mosquito Vectors and the malaria parasite
The disease called malaria in sub Saharan Africa is endemic and is a disease called by a
parasite. It is is transmitted through a vector which is a moquitoe. Malaria as parasite
doesn’t jump from one individual to another individual. It goes through a vector. The
female species of mosquito bite.
Plasmodium Falciparium ****** is the parasite KNOW THIS
Lecture 2 Human Adaptation ANTC41
Species= falciparium
Major lethal killer among the various different forms
Biological transmission: mosquitoes
Mosquitoes want blood meals for their baby.
2 species of mosquitoes malaria vectors in sub Saharan Africa.
anophele funestus
Anophele is the genus of mosquitoes
Two types of mosquitoes
Likes to breed in shaded river
Anopheles can live outside the human resovoir in another resovoir= sylvatic form=
Lives outside the host
Sylactic form example= H1N1, typical species that has this disease are birds
Anopheles gambiee
Likes to breed in open sunlight pools of water.
Normally since not a lot of light comes to water, the funestus form breed there
Anopheles gambiee need the sun to breed in the pools of water.
Process of how anopheles gambie becomes endemic
Humans conduct deforestation.
Human change environmental landscape because they want to grow crops, thereby
creating a new niche. New niche favors one species over another specie
New niche favours the gambiee. It is a more effective transmitter than the other species.
Leading to hyper endemic.
, Until people change technology,
Back then there were major differences in the environment. Now there are massive
changes in the environment =agriculture.
Slash and burn agriculture sometimes referred to as Malaysian agricultural complex.
From places like Malaysian new forms of agriculture were introduced.
People began to cut down big trees and used little trees to burn
5 years they had a place where they could plant
Gambiee are always in close contact with malaria and dieing in great numbers
They’ve have adopted in something that they think is better technology
Lecture 2 Human Adaptation ANTC41
Sickle cell Anemia Adaption
Baby is born special because it has a mutation by chance. Mutation allows that baby, to
do better against malaria.
Sickle cell anemia rises because it is advantageous
It allows those who normally would die of malaria would survive.
Agriculture- How changes influence the increase of mosquitoes
1) This is what happens when there are treee crops. Back drop lust tropical rainforest,
below is what happens when humans being alter the environment
2) Fish is predator. If there is No fish,nothing eats the mosquitoes.
3) In the pots there is water. Mosquitoes drink and breed in water. By having containers
make it available for fish to breed.
Sedentary means= remain still, stop moving around.
Nomatic= opposite of sedentary, hunting and gathering populations don’t have a large
change to breed because humans are moving from place to place
Sedentary, humans create ideal circumstances for transmission of malaria
Maximum opportunity for change to occur
Sickle Cell Anemia
Symbol is HB
Abnormal is HbS
Emerged as a random point mutation.
Point mutation occurred at the dna level at the codon
Four regions where mutation arised
Strong evidence that this mutation was not localized to one place or one time
Probably occurred multiple times and at least in four locations
1) coastal west Africa
2) .
3) .
4) .
***** on exam know specific locations****
Sickle cell hemoglobin on exam****\
Picture of DNA –Slide 32
= left normal hemoglobin=glutmaic acid
right= mutation specific a point mutation that occurred and a different amino acid forms