Beginning of the 20th century: rise in chronic diseases, recogniion of muliple risk factors (web of causaion) Irst menioned in 1950: alfred yankauer"s paper on the relaionship of fetal and infant mortality to residenial segregaion . Deiniions tends to be constant across cultures: gender: construct encompassing convenion, roles, and behaviours deined by culture and society. Is social (e. g. societal expectaion of imperaive to bear children). Deiniion varies across socieies and eras: four perspecives. Biology (sex) is the only determinants of health; however, you should not discriminate or consider woman"s biology as invisible but instead look at diseases that are unique to woman. Should use the term gender but it is same as sex . Health of both men and women is impacted by gender gender impacts women"s health more strongly. May lead to powerlessness & lack of control e. g. : exposure to hiv/aids. May result in disproporionate barriers in access to medical care, educaion, food.