Class Notes (1,100,000)
CA (630,000)
UTSC (30,000)
Anthropology (1,000)
Bryce (10)

ANTC68H3 Lecture Notes - Impaired Glucose Tolerance, Whitehall Study, Syndemic

Course Code

This preview shows page 1. to view the full 5 pages of the document.
Lecture # 12 Chronic Diseases
Long term chronic stress can make almost every other health problem
worse (a syndemic)
Our bodies are adapted to dealing with short term immediate stressful
threats as our hunter-gatherers ancestors
Our bodies deal with scarcity and uneven availability of food by
consuming and storing calories
Fight or Flight Immediate short-term stress; body goes into emergency
o Unnecessary activities like digestion slow down
o Blood is diverted to lungs, away from internal organs like stomach
and intestines
o Heart pumps faster, dilation of blood vessels
o Narrow focus tunnel vision
Parasympathetic (Calm)
Sympathetic (Fight or Flight)
Constricts pupil
Dilates pupil
Stimulate salvation
Inhibits salvation
Inhibits heart
Accelerates heart
Constricts bronchi
Relaxes bronchi
Stimulates digestive activity
Inhibits digestive activity
Stimlates gallbladder
Stimulates gloculsose release
by liver
Contracs bladder
Secretion of epinephrine and
norepinephrine from kidney
Relaxes rectum
Contracts rectum
Our bodies weren’t made to deal with long-term stress
Long term stress activates the hypothalmis-pitutitary-adrenal (HPA) axis
Our normal, “good” stress response becomes maladaptive
There is chronic rlease of stress hormones (glucocorticoids, cortisol is the
most important of these)
Accumulation of body fat, especially in the midsection
Desire for high-fat, high-sugar foods
Depression & other psychiatric disorders
Interferes with sleep cycles
Reduction of brain’s memory centres
Decrease in immune functioning
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Only page 1 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Long term stress can be manifested in three ways
o Foot on the Gas constantly aroused, angry, emotional
o Foot on the breake withdrawn, depressed, little energy
o Foot on both freeze under pressure, you appear calm outwardy
but inwardly you are anxious, aroused
Metabolic Syndrome
o Long term release of stress hormones
o WHO Defintion
At least 1 of diabetes mellitus, impaired glucose tolerance,
impaired fasting glucose, insulin resistance
At least 2 of high blood pressure, high lipid count in blood,
central obesity, albumin excretion in urine
Stress and Environment
o Our genes load the gun, but the environment pulls the trigger
Social Hierarchy and Stress
o Research in baboons has shown that monkeys at the bottom of the
dominance hierarchy show signs of chronic
Fail to grow, nervous behavior, depressive symptoms
o Sometimes the human hierarchy is well defined such as the caste
system, sometimes it isn’t such as SES
Depravation in Childhood
o For humans, being chronically at the bottom of the social hierarchy
(such as low SES) activates the HPA axis
o Stress in childhood leads to poor educational attainment
o Behavioral problems (hyperactivity, conduct disorders)
o Emotional problems
o Risk of cardiovascular problems in later life
o Chilrhood stress interacts with other risk factors, such as low birth
Whitehall Studies, Black Report
o Large-scale studies of social determinants of health
o White Hall Studies Study of British Civil Servants
First 1967-1976; Second mix of males and females
Researchers examined status in Civil Service and pay grades
plus other health factors
Found: people in the lower pay grade had mortality rates
that were 3X higher than those in the highest pay classes
Being at the bottom of the social hierarchy is not good for
o Black Report 1980 UK Department of Health
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version