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ANTC68H3 (59)
Lecture

Lecture 1

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Department
Anthropology
Course Code
ANTC68H3
Professor
Ingrid L.Stefanovic

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ANTC68 Lecture 1: Deconstructing Epidemics
Endemic: when infectious/non-infectious disease is present in a population at a relatively constant
(usually low) level at all times (no change in incidence over time)
oBig part of world
oFactors that cause an unexpected rise
oA lot of diseases at endemic level
Epidemic: when infectious/non-infectious disease rate (# of new cases or incidence) suddenly
increases above the expected or normal level for a short time in a localized area
Pandemic: when number of diseases cases occurring worldwide suddenly increases
The Epidemiological Triad
Human host
Pathogen (agent)
Environment (physical or cultural)
oPhysical- sun, living aspects like insects
oSocio-cultural- how people live, how culture living environment impact diseases
Have to understand how they actually evolve, interact with each other and how pathogens work
within the body
Infectious diseases is something global, not just in foreign countries, outside of where we live
Diseases that are form out of origin dont restrict geographically
Most diseases been around forever, very basic infectious diseases
oLots of diseases are highly preventable
Social contexts we created and maintained to allow diseases to persist dispite the
technological advances
A lot of people globally can be infected and killed
Effects of Infectious Disease on Humanity
WHO (1999): ID cause 48% of global deaths (under 45 years)
Huge economic impediment in impoverished countries
Six disease cause ~90% of infectious disease deaths (2000):
oRespiratory infections (mostly bacterial pneumonia, influenza) kill ~3.5 million/year
oHIV/AIDS kill ~2.3 million/year
oDiarrheal (gastrointestinal) infections kill 2.2 million/year
oTuberculosis kills 1.5 million/year
oMalaria kills 1.1 million/year
oMeasles kills 900 000/year
Perspectives
Biological
oPerspective that focus on political economy
oHave political economical structures restrain, control access to health care
oHave play a role in eruption/control of epidemic
Ecological
oEnvironmental factors
oEcology, factors of land, water
oThe way we change landscapes, pollute water/land
oDiseases comes about because of environment
oEx. Tropical regions- more diseases
Evolutionary
oAttention to evolution
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Description
ANTC68 Lecture 1: Deconstructing Epidemics Endemic: when infectiousnon-infectious disease is present in a population at a relatively constant (usually low) level at all times (no change in incidence over time) o Big part of world o Factors that cause an unexpected rise o A lot of diseases at endemic level Epidemic: when infectiousnon-infectious disease rate (# of new cases or incidence) suddenly increases above the expected or normal level for a short time in a localized area Pandemic: when number of diseases cases occurring worldwide suddenly increases The Epidemiological Triad Human host Pathogen (agent) Environment (physical or cultural) o Physical- sun, living aspects like insects o Socio-cultural- how people live, how culture living environment impact diseases Have to understand how they actually evolve, interact with each other and how pathogens work within the body Infectious diseases is something global, not just in foreign countries, outside of where we live Diseases that are form out of origin dont restrict geographically Most diseases been around forever, very basic infectious diseases o Lots of diseases are highly preventable Social contexts we c
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