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ANTC68H3 (59)
Lecture

Lecture 2

6 Pages
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Department
Anthropology
Course Code
ANTC68H3
Professor
Ingrid L.Stefanovic

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ANTC68 Lecture 2: Epidemiology and Anthropology
Epidemiology
The study of (human) disease, illness, and injury
Causes, manifestations, distribution and consequences and the application of this study to the control of
health problems (public health)
Interactions of host, agent and environment
It examines the biology and behaviour of humans (host) and disease-causing pathogens (agents), as well
as non-living and living environmental factors (natural and cultural) influencing the development and
manifestations of disease
Applies this knowledge to deal with and control of health problems
Descriptive, theoretical (models), analytical (quantitative) and applied (public health control/prevention)
Paleoepidemiology
Use of epidemiologice methods to infer how certain diseases might have been distributed in ancient time
How, why and where they originated
Try to predict possible futures of communicable and other diseases and possible trends in the emergence
of new diseases and re-emergence of old ones
Importance of studying prevalence over incidence
Sources of evidence: human hard/soft tissues, archaeological evidence (demography), cemetery and
(ethno) historical records, even ethnographic analogy
Hippocrates (c. 460-377 B.C.E.)
All matter made up of 4 elements: earth, air, fire, water
Each possess corresponding qualities of cold, dry, hot and moist
These elements carried in the body by 4 humours (bodily fluids): phlegm, yellow bile (choler, secreted
by liver), blood and black bile (gall, secreted by kidneys and spleen)
Disease is a product of a disturbance in the bodily humours, or from climate and weather effects (thus
health = good balance of humours)
From Description to Analysis
Miasma and Cholera
London, England
4 major cholera outbreaks in mid-19th C
Cholera: acute intestinal infection caused by bacterium Vibrio cholera
600 + deaths in 1854
John Snow
Medical Geography
Field of medicine that incorporates concepts and techniques of geography into the study of health and
the spread of disease:
oExamines the relationships between people and their environments in holistic terms
oSpatial analysis (where disease occurs, and at what rate, is important for clues to causation)- thus
distributional maps showing patterns of health-related phenomena
impact of climate and location on an individuals health
distribution of health services
Medical Ecology
www.notesolution.com
emphasizes the study of health and diseases in environmental context
Causes of Infectious Disease
Microparasites(small, able to reproduce directly within hosts; relatively short duration of
infection; produce immune response in infected individuals)
Bacteria: microorganisma lacking true nucleus, with DNA in a single molecule
Rickettsiae: bacteria-like structure that are obligate intracellular parasites of mammals : during
some stages of animal life cycle, they must live within the cell of a mammal, living off of their
resources
Viruses: obligate intracellular parasites with much simpler structure –a protein coat surrounding
molecule of either DNA/RNA, with little other internal structure; not capable of independent
metabolic activities but take over energy production in a host cell to facilitate their replication
Prions: nonliving particles capable of causing infectious disease; pieces of protein lacking genetic
material of their own but can be encoded in the hosts genetic material and can be transmitted
from person to person (mad cow disease)
Protozoa: single-celled organisms lacking true cell wall
Fungi:(yeasts, molds, mushrooms) multicellular decomposers distinguished by characteristic
growth pattern, spore formation and lack of chlorophyll
Macroparasites: larger, do not multiply directly within infected individual, but produce infective
stages that usually pass out of host before transmission to another host; produce limited immune
response in infected hosts; relatively long-lived
Metazoa: larger multicellular animals possessing tissue differentiation (worms, lice, ticks, fleas)
Modes of Infectious Disease Transmission
Respiratory (importance of population size, proximity)
Fecal-oral (gastrointestinal, parasites)
Sexual Contact
Vertical/Congenital(through mum, in utero, at birth)
Direct Physical Contact (yaws, pinta, endemic syphilis)
Indirect (inanimate objects [needles], water, soil, food; or via living vectors[snails, mosquitoes,
ticks, fleas, lice])
www.notesolution.com

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Description
ANTC68 Lecture 2: Epidemiology and Anthropology Epidemiology The study of (human) disease, illness, and injury Causes, manifestations, distribution and consequences and the application of this study to the control of health problems (public health) Interactions of host, agent and environment It examines the biology and behaviour of humans (host) and disease-causing pathogens (agents), as well as non-living and living environmental factors (natural and cultural) influencing the development and manifestations of disease Applies this knowledge to deal with and control of health problems Descriptive, theoretical (models), analytical (quantitative) and applied (public health controlprevention) Paleoepidemiology Use of epidemiologice methods to infer how certain diseases might have been distributed in ancient time How, why and where they originated Try to predict possible futures of communicable and other diseases and possible trends in the emergence of new diseases and re-emergence of old ones Importance of studying prevalence over incidence Sources of evidence: human hardsoft tissues, archaeological evidence (demography), cemetery and (ethno) historical records, even ethnographic analogy Hippocrates (c. 460-377 B.C.E.) All matter made up of 4 elements: earth, air, fire, water Each possess corresponding qualities of cold, dry, hot and moist These elements carried in the body by 4 humours (bodily fluids): phlegm, yellow bile (choler, secreted by liver), blood and black bile (gall, secreted by kidneys and spleen) Disease is a product of a disturbance in the bodily humours, or from climate and weather effects (thus health = good balance of humours) From Description to Analysis Miasma and Cholera London, England th 4 major cholera outbreaks in mid-19 C Cholera: acute intestinal infection caused by bacterium Vibrio cholera 600 + deaths in 1854 John Snow Medical Geography Field of medicine that incorporates concepts and techniques of geography into the study of health and the spread of disease: o Examines the relationships between people and their environments in holistic terms o Spatial analysis (where disease occurs, and at what rate, is important for clues to causation)- thus distributional maps showing patterns of health-related phenomena impact of climate and location on an individuals health distribution of health services Medical Ecology www.notesolution.com
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