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Lecture

Lecture 4

7 Pages
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Department
Anthropology
Course Code
ANTC68H3
Professor
Ingrid L.Stefanovic

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ANTC68 Lecture 4: Tropical Infectious Diseases: Malaria
Humid Tropics
One of most extensive/diverse biomes, yet one of the most threatened due to deforestation
High avg temp
High rainfall
High humidity
High species diversity (over 50% of world)
Infectious Disease Microorganism Diversity
Numerous microhabitats promote speciation
Tropical pathogens and vectors generally have very short generation times, thus there is great
potential for evolution of new pathogens and vectors
Even if not originally adapted to human populations, their short generation times ensure
continued opportunities for the evolution of new forms that may be able to cross species boundaries
and lead to human infections
Vectors able to reproduce effectively year-round in tropics
The Wet Season
More outbreaks of disease
Disease vectors more abundant
Humans more exposed to intestinal parasites transmitted by contaminated water or soil
Humans spend more time inside, facilitating transmission of respiratory infections
Seasonal variations in nutrition (and susceptibility)
Human Population in the Tropics
Approx. 60 countries with over 2 billion people situated entirely or partly in humid tropics
Tropical populations growing rapidly: increases of 1.1-3.8% per year
Many tropical countries are poor: infrastructure, housing, transportation
Household structure, facilities and location
High population density
Agricultural practices (& outdoor activities)
Deforestation and encroachment
Water control projects and sanitation
Inadequate health care & drug resistance
Low status of women (greater female impoverishment, thus sex trade)
Social upheaval, war, conflict
Rural-urban migration
The Future of Tropical Forests
Deforestation due to industry, population increase and human migration/economic need (results in
drier/more flammable land, soil leaching and erosion, landslides, unstable ground/geology)
Fragmentation of forests
Reduced biological diversity and extinction
Climate change related to deforestation (models predict reduced rainfall, increased evaporation,
increased reflected light, reduced cloud cover, effects on hydrological cycles, increased atmospheric
gases)
Shifting of high fertility forest soils to pasture (cattle ranching)
Increased shift from communal to private land ownership
Need implementation of different subsistence practices - low labour intensive/disease resistant
plant species, agroforestry, multi-/intercropping
Important advantage: tropical forest is more resilient than others and can restore itself quicker
Tropical Infectious Diseases
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Direct transmission: from one primary host to another
orespiratory, fecal-oral, sexual, congenital, direct physical contact
Indirect transmission: intermediate host or agent needed to effect transmission from one
primary host to another primary host
owater-borne, food-borne, soil-borne, vector-borne, needle-sharing, complex life cycles
requiring several different hosts and vectors (in which the pathogen completes part of its
life cycle)
Most important modes in tropics: vector-borne, respiratory, fecal-oral, water-borne, sexual
Zoonotic Diseases
Primary host other than humans
Important source of emerging human infections
Affects tropics more so than temperate regions
Argentine and Bolivian hemorrhagic fevers
Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE)
Ebola, Marburg, Hantavirus, Lassa & Rift Valley fever
Importance of agricultural practices, ecological change, urbanization, water control systems, lack
of immunization, war and mass population movements, famine and poverty
Cholera, Lymphatic Filariasis, Dracunculiasis
Major problems in tropical regions
Transmission strongly influenced by nature of water use
Importance of human practices in spread/control of disease
CHOLERA: water-borne infection caused by Vibrio cholerae bacillus; acute intestinal infection,
diarrhea, dehydration, death
LYMPHATIC FILARIASIS: mosquito-borne parasitic disease caused by filarial worms, linked to
development and maintenance of water control systems
DRACUNCULIASIS (GUINEA WORM): parasitic infection with Dracunculus medinensis worms
from contaminated water
Importance of numerous circulating diseases (and syndemics) what limits spread of one disease
may increase spread of a different disease, i.e., Ghana, rice irrigation and water control projects,
dracunculiasis and filariasis/elephantiasis and schistosomiasis
Also, notably: when transmission becomes more difficult, there may be selection for less virulent
pathogen strains, so that hosts survive long enough for the pathogen to reproduce itself the
newly evolved strains may be better able to withstand attempts to control their reproduction,
diminishing the chances of control success
Failure of development projects: when they are single disease-focused
Control measures need to focus on locally-sustainable community ecology (human cultural
variables), not just simple host-parasite interactions and single diseases
Malaria
Protozoan parasitic infection
Plasmodium falciparum, vivax, ovale, malariae
Transmitted by female Anopheles mosquito
Flu-like symptoms : fever, chills, headache, muscle pains, sweats, tiredness, nausea, diarrhea,
anemia, vomiting
No vaccine, only prophylactic drugs: quinine, chloroquine and artemisinin derivatives and
preventative measures (bed nets, screens, activity timing, insecticides, reducing water sources)
Note: syndemic with other diseases of poverty
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Description
ANTC68 Lecture 4: Tropical Infectious Diseases: Malaria Humid Tropics One of most extensivediverse biomes, yet one of the most threatened due to deforestation High avg temp High rainfall High humidity High species diversity (over 50% of world) Infectious Disease Microorganism Diversity Numerous microhabitats promote speciation Tropical pathogens and vectors generally have very short generation times, thus there is great potential for evolution of new pathogens and vectors Even if not originally adapted to human populations, their short generation times ensure continued opportunities for the evolution of new forms that may be able to cross species boundaries and lead to human infections Vectors able to reproduce effectively year-round in tropics The Wet Season More outbreaks of disease Disease vectors more abundant Humans more exposed to intestinal parasites transmitted by contaminated water or soil Humans spend more time inside, facilitating transmission of respiratory infections Seasonal variations in nutrition (and susceptibility) Human Population in the Tropics Approx. 60 countries with over 2 billion people situated entirely or partly in humid tropics Tropical populations growing rapidly: increases of 1.1-3.8% per year Many tropical countries are poor: infrastructure, housing, transportation Household structure, facilities and location High population density Agricultural practices (& outdoor activities) Deforestation and encroachment Water control projects and sanitation Inadequate health care & drug resistance Low status of women (greater female impoverishment, thus sex trade) Social upheaval, war, conflict Rural-urban migration The Future of Tropical Forests Deforestation due to industry, population increase and human migrationeconomic need (results in driermore flammable land, soil leaching and erosion, landslides, unstable groundgeology) Fragmentation of forests Reduced biological diversity and extinction Climate change related to deforestation (models predict reduced rainfall, increased evaporation, increased reflected light, reduced cloud cover, effects on hydrological cycles, increased atmospheric gases) Shifting of high fertility forest soils to pasture (cattle ranching) Increased shift from communal to private land ownership Need implementation of different subsistence practices - low labour intensivedisease resistant plant species, agroforestry, multi-intercropping Important advantage: tropical forest is more resilient than others and can restore itself quicker Tropical Infectious Diseases www.notesolution.com
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