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Lecture

ANTC23H3 Lecture Notes - Ovulation


Department
Anthropology
Course Code
ANTC23H3
Professor
Joyce Parga

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Key Terms
Willingness to copulate with a
male
Receptivity
-
Female bahaviours that function
to initiate and maintain sexual
interaction with a male; sexual
solicitation, sexual presentation
Proceptivity
-
Male chimps/bonobos sometimes
display a penile erection as an
invitation to mate
-
Period of heightened sexual
activity and receptivity exhibited
by female mammals usually (not
always) around the time of
ovulation
Estrus
-
Discharge of an ovum from the
ovary
Ovulation
-
Period of time during,
immediately preceding, and
immediately following ovulation
(most likely to conceive)
Anthropoid females can mate and
show estrus behaviour outside of
POP, prosimians cannot
Periovulatory period (POP)
-
Mating Behaviour
Prosimians
Anthropoids
Controlled by
hormones
Free from hormonal
control
Can only mate
during POP
Can mate when
pregnant,
reproductive
senescence, etc.
Males are not
sexually
interested in
females not in
estrus
Males will mate with
females not in estrus
(more likely to mate
with those who are
displaying estrus
behaviour)
Only
copulation for
purpose of
conception
Non-consumptive
mating
Sexual Skin
OWM and Apes
Swelling in vaginal region during
POP
Estrogen dependant (females only)
Ex. Baboons, chimps/banobos, and
macaques (Only these three
taxonomic groups with significant
sexual swellings)
Other species also get peri-vaginal
pinkening, but not a sexual
swelling
Type 1: Sexual swelling
-
Male and female
Ex. Stump-tailed macaque
Type 2: Facial coloration
-
Hypotheses for Sexual Swelling
Some contradictory information
Primarily in anthropoids who can mate
all the time, maybe indication of
ovulation so they indicate optimal time
for mating (maximum fertility) and they
can mate when they are most likely to
get pregnant
-
Trait is seen as an honest
indicatory of a female's quality as a
mate
Contradictory information
Reliable indicator hypothesis
-
Attract males from outside the
group/long-range mate attraction
-
This way, females can mate with
best male
Stimulate male-male competition by
sexually exciting males
-
Copulatory Calls
Type of vocalization
-
Both females and/or males will emit
vocalizations during copulation,
sometimes at point of
ejaculation/orgasm
-
Coordination of copulatory
movements between male and
female
Stimulate competition between
males by alerting others to the
mating pair
Possible adaptive functions
-
Long Calls
Also called loud calls
-
Only flanged males
Function to advertise male
presence to females and to deter
unflanged males from staying in
the area (male/male
competition)
Orangutans:
-
Males only, mostly during mating
season
May function as a honest
advertisement of quality to
females
Likely functions in male-male
competition
RTL:
-
Female Orgasm in Non-human primates
Female 'Clutching' reaction
Characteristic facial expressions
Vocalizations
Strongest evidence in macaques and
apes
Behavioural evidence
-
Increased respiration and heart rate
Uterine and vaginal muscle
contractions
Physiological evidence
-
Might stimulate male ejaculation
Might encourage females to seek
out more mating partners (causing
sperm competition)
May stimulate sperm transport
through muscular contractions
Mate discrimination during or
after copulation
Body decides more than mind
Ie. Affilial bond/chemical
reaction in brain makes body
more receptive to sperm of
associated male
Might function in cryptic female
choice
Possible adaptive functions
-
Post-ejaculatory refractory period:
period of time following ejaculation,
males cannot immediately mate and
ejaculate again
Male Ejaculation
-
Both sexes exhibit behaviour even
when potential sexual partners are
present
Humans, Apes, OWM, and a few
NWM [Correlation with the fact that
they are capable of non-
reproductive sex?]
Replenishment of fluids
and/or sperm; increase of
sperm count; "flush out" old,
low quality sperm
Adaptive Functions?
Masturbatory Behaviour in Primates
-
Sexual Signals
June-12-12
1:07 PM
ANTC23 Page 1
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