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Lecture

ANTC23H3 Lecture Notes - Night Monkey, Sifaka, Polygynandry


Department
Anthropology
Course Code
ANTC23H3
Professor
Joyce Parga

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Anthropoids
Larger bodied than prosimians
Large brain-to-body size
Reduced olfactory communication
Increased use of vision communication
Almost all are diurnal
Sexual maturity, longer gestation period, longer infant
dependency, longer lives
Have slower life-history than prosimians
General Traits
-
Chimpanzees, gorillas, orangutans, and gibbons/siamangs
Pan troglodytes and Pan paniscus
Both found in multi-male multi-female groups
Chimpanzees
Bonobos
Fission/Fusion Social
Organization
Fission/Fusion social
organization
Copulation used in a
strictly reproductive
context
Copulation used in many
social contexts (lesson
tension, reconcile, as a
greeting); Same-sex
copulations are also common
Alpha is always male
Possibility of Alpha being
female
Males aggressively
dominate females;
sexual coercion
Male/female 'egalitarian'
relationships
Chimpanzees
Single-male, multi-female, and multi-male +multi-female
groups
Oldest, most dominant group males
Groups have at least one silverback
Gorillas
Semi-solitary except when mating, when food is
abundant, or in mother/child groups
Pongo
Intense male-male competition for female mates
Males incredibly large compared to females
Males have cheek flanges which females lack; only the
most dominant male in a general area will have it - male
bimaturism
Forced copulation is a common mating strategy of males
Orangutans
Live in stable male-female pairs (Pair bonded)
Once thought to be monogamous but some extra-pair
copulations occur
Gibbons and Siamangs
Apes
-
Monkeys
-
New World Monkeys
Old World Monkeys
All arboreal, found in
Central, South, and North
America
More terrestrial than NWM,
found in Africa, Asia, etc.
All have tails, some are
prehensile
All have tails
Smaller bodied than Old
World Monkeys
Larger bodied than NWM
Mostly live in MM/MF
groups, few are pair bonded
MM/MF groups, or SM/MF
groups (One Male Unit)
Prosimians
Small-bodied, nocturnal
Faster life-history than anthropoids
MM/MF, Semi-solitary, and pair bonded
Ie. Scent -marking
Chemical communication plays a large role in social behaviour
General Traits
-
Mating Systems
See figure 3.3 in Dixson p. 26
-
1 female mates with 1 male exclusively
Owl Monkey (Aotus), titi monkey
Monogamy
-
1 female, multiple males, each male mates only with that female
Many Callitrichids (Tamarins and marmosets); Golden lion tamarin
Polyandry
-
1 male, multiple females, each female mates only with that male
Colobus monkey, patas monkey, gelada baboon, hamadryas baboon, gorilla
Polygyny
-
Males and females mate with multiple individuals of the opposite sex
Also called multi-male, multi-female mating system or promiscuous mating
system
Chimpanzee, Savannah baboon, brown lemur, sifaka, ring-tailed lemur
Polygynandry
-
Individuals only come together to mate and do not live in permanent social
groups
Aye-aye, galago, mouse lemur, orangutan
Dispersed
-
Mating system and social system not always the same thing
-
Introduction to Non-Human Primates
May-15-12
1:11 PM
ANTC23 Page 1
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