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Lecture

ANTC23 W2.docx

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Department
Anthropology
Course Code
ANTC23H3
Professor
Joyce Parga

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Description
ANTC23 L2 Primate order: aye-aye to tarsiers are prosimians. Then New World, Old World, then apes. You should know which is what, i.e. aye-aye – prosimian. * If she gives in details, then know what it belongs to. - Humans, apes, monkeys  anthropoids (suborder, which is one step lower than order) - Prosimians Anthropoids - Humans, apes, monkeys - General traits: o Larger bodied than prosimians o Larger relative brain size than prosimians o Reduced reliance on smell (visual communication more important)  Lemur – scent-marking and chemical communication, not much visual, because they are prosimians  Anthropoids – visual communication is very important, i.e. visual, facial expressions or fluttering eyes o Almost all are diurnal o Have slower life-history than prosimians (take more time to sexually mature, live longer, have longer gestation lengths)  i.e. Lemurs in their teens are already considered old. Lemur might be pregnant for 4 months, but think of slow maturation as the opposite of live fast and die young. Lemurs have fast life- history, whereas anthropoids die old. Apes - Great apes: Chimpanzees, gorillas, orangutans - Lesser apes: Gibbons/siamangs o Gibbons are very small and have less muscle. They are called lesser just because they are more slight and smaller in size. Chimpanzees - Common chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) o Male aggressively dominate females o “Alpha” individual in a group is always a male o Copulation used strictly in a reproductive context - Pygmy chimp (Pan paniscus), bonobos o Relationships between males and females are “egalitarian” o Some groups have an “alpha” female o Copulation used in many contexts (to lessen tension in a group, to reconcile, as a greeting)  Greeting: they have fission-fusion organization. They spread to find food and spend time apart. Then they come back together and have sex to greet each other. Happens in same sex too, i.e. penis fencing. - Pan is the genus, and troglodytes is the species name. - Both species found in multi-male, multi-female groups. Gorillas - Single-male, multi-female, & multi-male, multi-female groups - Groups usually have at least 1 “silverback” male o Silverbacks: usually the oldest, most dominant group males Orangutans (Pongo) - Live semi-solitarily (single males and females come together to mate or if food is abundant in area) - Intense male-male competition for female mates o When there is sexual dimorphism - Males LARGE in body size compared to females - Males have cheek flanges that females lack (huge slabs on the side of faces) o Doesn’t necessarily have a function but it is hypot
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