Primate order: aye-aye to tarsiers are prosimians. Then New World, Old World, then
apes. You should know which is what, i.e. aye-aye – prosimian.
* If she gives in details, then know what it belongs to.
- Humans, apes, monkeys anthropoids (suborder, which is one step lower
- Humans, apes, monkeys
- General traits:
o Larger bodied than prosimians
o Larger relative brain size than prosimians
o Reduced reliance on smell (visual communication more important)
Lemur – scent-marking and chemical communication, not
much visual, because they are prosimians
Anthropoids – visual communication is very important, i.e.
visual, facial expressions or fluttering eyes
o Almost all are diurnal
o Have slower life-history than prosimians (take more time to sexually
mature, live longer, have longer gestation lengths)
i.e. Lemurs in their teens are already considered old. Lemur
might be pregnant for 4 months, but think of slow maturation
as the opposite of live fast and die young. Lemurs have fast life-
history, whereas anthropoids die old.
- Great apes: Chimpanzees, gorillas, orangutans
- Lesser apes: Gibbons/siamangs
o Gibbons are very small and have less muscle. They are called lesser
just because they are more slight and smaller in size.
- Common chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)
o Male aggressively dominate females
o “Alpha” individual in a group is always a male
o Copulation used strictly in a reproductive context
- Pygmy chimp (Pan paniscus), bonobos
o Relationships between males and females are “egalitarian”
o Some groups have an “alpha” female
o Copulation used in many contexts (to lessen tension in a group, to
reconcile, as a greeting) Greeting: they have fission-fusion organization. They spread to
find food and spend time apart. Then they come back together
and have sex to greet each other. Happens in same sex too, i.e.
- Pan is the genus, and troglodytes is the species name.
- Both species found in multi-male, multi-female groups.
- Single-male, multi-female, & multi-male, multi-female groups
- Groups usually have at least 1 “silverback” male
o Silverbacks: usually the oldest, most dominant group males
- Live semi-solitarily (single males and females come together to mate or if
food is abundant in area)
- Intense male-male competition for female mates
o When there is sexual dimorphism
- Males LARGE in body size compared to females
- Males have cheek flanges that females lack (huge slabs on the side of faces)
o Doesn’t necessarily have a function but it is hypot