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ANTA01 Textbook - Chapter 12.docx

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Genevieve Dewar

ANTA01 – Understanding Humans: Introduction to Physical Anthropology and Archaeology Week – 10 Chapter 12 : The Origin and Dispersal of Modern Humans The Regional Continuity Model: Multiregional Evolution - Closely associated with Milford Wolpoof (paleoanthropologist – U. Of Michigan) o Suggest that local populations – in Europe, Asia and Africa continued their indigenous evolutionary development from premodern Middle Pleistocene forms to anatomically modern humans How could anatomically modern humans arise separately in different continents and end up so much alike, both physically and genetically? - (1) Denying that the earliest modern H. Sapiens populations originated exclusively in Africa - (2) asserting that significant levels of gene flow between various geographically dispersed premodern populations were extremely likely throughout the Pleistocene Most recent data suggest that multiregional models no longer tell us much about the origins of modern humans; nor do they seem to provide much information regarding the dispersal of modern H. sapiens. Replacement Models - Emphasizes modern humans first evolved in Africa and only later dispersed to other parts of the world, where they replaced those hominins already living in these other regions - 2 versions of replacement models have been proposed o 1) Emphasized complete replacement  Proposes: Anatomically modern populations arose in Africa within the last 200 000 years and then migrated from Africa, completely replacing populations in Europe and Asia  This model does not account for a transition from premodern forms to modern H. sapiens anywhere in the world except Africa Has been concluded that some interbreeding took place between Neanderthals and modern humans, arguing against complete replacement and supporting some form of partial replacement. Partial Replacement - The degree of interbreeding was modest, ranging from 1 to 4 percent in modern populations outside Africa o Contemporary Africans have no trace of Neanderthal genes, suggesting interbreeding took place after modern humans migrated out of Africa - Interbreeding possibly took place around 80 000 – 50 000 ya, quite possibly in Middle East The Earliest Discoveries of Modern Humans Africa Omo 1 - From Omo Kibish (Southernmost Ethiopia) - Using radiometric techniques – came from 195 000 ya - Essentially very modern in most respects of a chin Early modern humans likely appeared in East Africa by shortly after 200 00 ya and had migrated to southern Africa by approximately 100 000 ya. Herto - Well preserved and well dated H. sapiens fossils from Ethiopia - Herto fossils includes a mostly complete adult cranium, a fairly complete child’s cranium, & a few other cranial fragments - Well – controlled radiometric dating securely placed the remains at between 160 000 and 154 000 ya o Best –dated hominin fossils form this time period - The preservation and morphology of the remains leave little doubt about their relationship to modern humans - Mostly complete adult cranium o Very large 3 o Cranial capacity is 1 450 cm o Heavily built; Large, arching brow ridge in front, a large projecting occipital protuberance in the back o These fossils; “Sample a population that is on the verge of anatomical modernity but not yet fully modern.” The Near East - Qafzel Cave yielded the remains of at least 20 individuals - Skhul dated between 130 000 and 100 000 ya
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