Class Notes (806,627)
Canada (492,361)
Anthropology (1,560)
ANTA01H3 (412)

ANTA01 - Lecture 2.docx

6 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Toronto Scarborough
Genevieve Dewar

ANTA01 – Week 2 – September 20, 2012 History of Evolution - Evolution o 5 traits  Natural Selection  Variation already exists o It affects population not individuals  Survival of the Fittest  Sexual Selection  Inheritance of traits  Adaptation to environment What is a Species? - A group of creatures which breed together and their offspring is fertile and they’re viable (born alive) o May be quite similar in appearance (deer) or quite variable (dogs) o May all live in one part of the world (polar bears) or in many parts of the world (right whales) o Share behavioral traits relating to social groups, food preferences, reproductive strategies, etc  Recently Zoo keepers have noticed that North African Giraffes would not procreate with South African Giraffes, regardless that they are the same. They would not procreate with each other because they have been separated for so long that they did not recognize that they had the same mating rituals o Distinguish between members of own species and others Darwin – 1859 - He published The Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection Pre-Enlightenment period - According to Genesis – Adam and Eve creation story - Everything was made in 6 days (God) o Animals o Men o Technology History of Origins - Origin of the Earth & therefore humans based on his interpretation of the Bible - The first man to figure out how old the Earth is James Ussher (1581-1656) [1650 AD] o He came up with October 23 4004BC o Later addition 9:00 am Geology Contributes - Catastrophists - George Cuvier (1769- 1832) o If only 6000 years old, then global and violent catastrophes to explain canyons, mountains? o But Reverend Burnet (1681 AD) slow erosion? Water, wind and Ice Uniformitarianism - Buffon (1749 AD) o “To learn about the earth, study the earth” – processes are known, natural, and observable - Hutton (1788 AD) o Slow working, uniform and natural processes = hundreds of thousands of years - Lyell (1873 AD) o 100 000 years, “the present is the key to the past” - Reverend Chalemer – Ussher was wrong, not the bible - Carolus Linneus (1757) o Comparative Biology o Categorizing the worlds plants & animals o 7 basic layers or taxon level s o Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, species o Binomial System o Homo sapiens (wise men) Adding to the fire.. - Colonization o Identified new peoples not mentioned in the bible - Archaeology o Stone tools, “Thunderstones” o Or pre-metal Stone Ages? Life on Earth had changed - Conclusion of the Enlightenment period o Fossils o Extinct Animals o Strata & Stratigraphy Lamarck – First Mechanism 1. Adaptation to the environment 2. Progression towards perfection 3. Inheritance of acquired characteristics Darwin & Wallace – Mechanism of Natural Selection - Natural Selection – Variation already exists between individuals of the same species, allows for adaptation to changes in the environment - Survival of the Fittest & Sexual Selection – Those individuals that are by chance best adapted to an environment will have higher reproductive success - Increases the frequency of that trait within the species/population - Variation is random and there is no direction Darwin’s Finches - Change occurs as an adaptation to a changing local environment - Change works on the variation of traits already present in a population Natural Selection – Survival of the Fittest 1. Favorable variations promote survival of the individuals in whom they appear - Traits are inherited by their offspring, who changes of survival are also better - Favorable variations eventually spread through the population 2. Unfavorable variations don’t promote survivals - May cause the individuals to die at an early age - May reduce the fertility of bearers, who avhe few offspring - Either way, unfavorable variations tend to be removed fro
More Less

Related notes for ANTA01H3

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.