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Lecture 5

ANTA01 - Lecture 5.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Genevieve Dewar

ANTA01 – Week 5 – October 11, 2012 - Humans are primates, one of the apes o “Primate Tree” Who are Hominoids& Hominins? - Hominoids = Great & lesser Apes o Humans (Homo) o Chimpanzees & Bonobos (Pan) o Gorillas (Gorilla) o Orangutans (Pongo) o Gibbons (Hylobates) - Hominins = Humans Pan & Ancestors Used to identify Hominoids - Y5 Cusp Pattern - Dental Formula - All Hominoids have a 2:1:2:3 patter (Teeth) in each quadrant - Large bodied - Tailless - Quadrapedal - Arboreal - Some tool use - All hominoids can swing on the trees How do we identify Hominoids in the fossil record? (Hint: How would we - Spine (Whether or not it has a tail) - Look at the teeth - Capitchanim Hominins - Homo + Pan + ancestors of both - Genetic studies 5-8 MYA - Share 98% of DNA - How do we identify them? Vs other Hominioids? Hominoids - They do not walk on top of branches, they stay below the branch hanging - When they walk, they curl their knuckles to walk Humans - FM – Foramen Magnum o Largest hole in our skull (Where our spinal cord goes through connected to the brain) - Human pelvises have become short and flaring to hold up our guts (Transition) - Legs (Femora) o The head of our femur is much bigger to take our weight o The neck that articulates the leg bone becomes smaller o Our femur angles in for our knees to come together o Our feet  Big toe – Moves up and becomes in line with our other toes  Heels – Extends and becomes longer and the “arch” o Curvature with spine  Lumbar curvature (Bottom curvature) Anatomical Evidence - Hominoids – Dental patter, Y-% cusps, tailless, Evidence for specialized locomotion - Hominis = Pan? – Homo? Genetics suggest looking at 8- 5 MYA - Bipeds – Locations of FM, angle of knee, pelvis morphology, foot morphology, curvature of spine - Typically find multitude of primitive and derived traits together Where do we draw a line between Pan or Homo? - Most species last 2 million years, we have to assume they can’t become a sequential species so they have new names Australopithecus (Aus-tra-lo-pith-e-cus)/Paranthropus (Par-an-thro-pus) - 5 to 1 mya in East and South Africa movements o We can access the fossils from East Africa because of tectonic o We can access the fossils from South Africa because of mining - +Chad – A. bahrelghazali - Bipedal when on the ground - Apelike Brain - Robust forms sometimes called Paranthropus - Lumpers Vs. Splitters Primitive Australopithecus – A. Anamensis - - 5mya - East Africa - Ape like dentition - Small front teeth - Large back teeth - Brain 300cc’s (On par with Chimpanzees) A. Bahrelghazali - 2:1:2:3 Dental pattern, has a U shaped parabolic dental arcane A. Afarensis - Hadar: Afar - Bipedal - Femur - Small heard but angled - Small stature - Sexuall dimorphic - Speies - Males are twice the size of the females o They also have larger canines o Face projects forward a lot o The head is pinched ; it indicates that the brain was not developed Gracile Australopithecines - 3.9 to 2 mya in East Africa - 3.5 to 2.3 mya in South Africa - Erect bipeds, about 1-1.5 m in stature - Apelike skull morphology but larger brains - Teeth for chewing food in a hominin fashion o Earlier fossils show dental features similar to some late Mocene aples; later south African fossils do not - Sexually dimorphic (male canines are still bigger than females), in body size and canine teeth size - Taung Child – A.africanus o The shape of the brain fossilized too - Mrs Ples? – A. africanus o Has a big crack in her head o Very petite Robust Australopithecines - South Africa o 1.8 to 1 million years ago o Thick bones for their size, with prominent muscle markings o Sagittal crest (Ride of bones that the jaw can connect to the head), for huge temporal muscles (more evident in males) – An example of convergent evolution in gorillas and hominins o P. robustus (South Africa)  Has enormous moles  Massive faces/jaw bones - East Africa o 2.5 to 1.3 mya o More massive skull and larger b
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