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Department
Anthropology
Course
ANTA01H3
Professor
Anna Nagy
Semester
Fall

Description
WEEK ONE Archaeology- the study of human history and prehistory through the excavation of sites and the analysis of artefacts and other physical remains  Maritime archaeology- underwater; sunken ships  Historical archaeology- more recent times, war of 1812  Monumental archaeology- the pyramids, complex experiences  Palaeolithic/ cave archaeology  Bioarchaelogy- past cultures, different religions, studying through burials, location shows belief systems History- recorded; the written events around us Prehistory-the time before written events Bog bodies- preservation Homo floresiensis- found new species Primatology- study primate’s behaviour, social, emotions; telling our own ancestor’s own behaviour Social/ culture anthropology- comparative study of human societies and cultures and their development Linguistics- most important thing that differentiates us from our ancestors. Our brains are bigger in the region of language, therefore we can teach our children First bipeds fossils- when people first started walking on two feet Early homo and cultural origins: tools- we used tools to get different food which gave us nutrients for our brain to develop this much In the past people used creation myths to explain how humans were made. Scientific method:  Induction (specific observations, general rules, testing  Testing (hypothesis based on educated guesses, look for specific predicted data, testing)  Theory development (only true when it cannot be proved wrong) In the past people use to think adam and eve was the creation story. But later on people realized that there were evidence of something different (ex: fossils when it was said that animals were made as they are) WEEK 2 Evolution: descent with modification What is evolution? How does it work?  Natural selection (works on individuals)  Adaptation to environment  Sexual selection  Variability already exists in a population  Evolution works on populations and not individuals  Mutation  Genetics  Survival of the fittest Species- a group of organism that shares a genetic profile; a group of creatures which breed together and produce viable and fertile offspring  May be quite similar appearance (deer) or quite variable (dogs)  May live in one part of the world (polar bears) or in many parts of the world (right whales)  Share behaviour traits related to social groups, food preferences, reproductive strategies, etc  Distinguish between members of own species and others Humans are in many parts of the world and are quite variable (like dogs) Darwin (1859) - took him so long to publish “the origin of species” because it contradicted with the religion of that time. He was highly educated and traveled to an isolated island where he got the opportunity to see new species Pre-enlightenment period  According to genesis- Adam and Eve creation story  Everything was made in 6 days  Man, animals, technology was already established History of origins Origin of the earth and therefore humans based on his interpretation of the bible James Ussher (1581-1656) worked out the Old Testament and tried to figure out how long ago the six days were (Oct rd 23 4004BC) Geology contributes Catastrophists  By George Cuvier (1769-1832)  If only 6000 years old then, global and violent catastrophes to explain canyons, mountains  Catastrophes so violent that no one had seen before must have created these  Reverend Burnet (1681 AD) noticed slow erosion from water, wind and ice Uniformitarianism  The processes that you see working today also affected the earth in the past  Buffon (1749AD)- “to learn about the earth, to study the earth”- processes are known, natural and observable  Hutton (1788AD) - slow working, uniform and natural processes = hundreds and thousands of years  Lyell (1873 AD)- 100000 years “the present is the key to the past”  Reverend Chalmer- Ussher was wrong, not the Bible Carolus Linneus (1758)  Did comparative biology  Categorising the worlds plants and animals  7 basic layers or taxon levels  Kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species  Binomial system  Homo sapiens (wise man)  Included us in the animal kingdom because we have similarities to animals Colonization  Identified new people not mentioned in the Bible Archaeology  Stone tools  “Thunderstones”  Or pre metal stone ages Life on earth had changed  Conclusion of the enlightenment period  Found fossils and therefore realized that animals existed before the 6 days  Extinct animals  Strata and stratigraphy  1800’s the question changed to “how did the earth/ species change” Lamarck- first mechanism 1. Adaptation to the environment 2. Progress towards perfection 3. Inheritance of acquired characteristics Giraffes had short necks before but their necks grew because they had to stretch to reach the better leaves However this was physical not inherited Darwin and Wallace (Mechanism of natural selection)  Natural selection- variation already existed between individuals of the same species, allows for adaptation to changes in the environment  Survival of the fittest and sexual selection- those individuals that are by chance best adapted to an environment will have higher reproductive success  Increased the frequency of the traits within the species/ population  Variation is random and there is no direction Darwin’s finches  Change occurs as an adaptation to a changing local environment  Changes work on the variation of traits already present in a population  No direction = natural selection Natural selection (survival of the fittest) 1.) Favourable variations promote survival of the individuals in whom they appear  Traits are inherited by their offspring, whose chances of survival are also better  Favourable variations eventually spread through the population 2.) Unfavourable variations don’t promote survival  May reduce the individuals to die at an early age  May reduce the fertility of bearers, who have few offspring  Either way, unfavourable variations tend to be removed from population 3.) For any species, natural forces act to favour the expansion of some traits and to favour the removal of other traits from future generations What is evolution and natural selection working on? We know the mechanism but what are the processes and what is actually changing? (Genetics, DNA) Theories of speciation Gradualism- all populations are changing all the time, gradually changing into new forms and forming new species Punctuated equilibrium- populations tend to be stable, not changing very greatly for long periods of time  When catastrophic changes take place in their environment, they undergo extreme rapid change, producing many new species. This is known as an adaptive radiation. Ex: in the past when dinosaurs still existed, when they got wiped out, the smaller dinosaur mammals had to replace them Primates  Humans are a type of primate, what does that mean?  Opposable thumbs  Arboreal (climbing tree)  Social expectations/ rules  Dependant infants  Large complex brains relative to body size  We use vision, while others use scent and hearing  Language  Tools Main primate groups Lemurs> Tarsiers > Monkeys> apes Lorises Old world monkeys [African and Asian monkeys] human New world monkeys [everywhere else] How are humans the same or different than the other apes? Same Different  Tailless Apes Humans  Sex  Hair  Biped  Cognition  More complex brains  Dentition  S-curve back Classification schemes for primates- relationships Phonetics- Linnean style, similarities and differences Cladistics- evolutionary branching or shared derived traits Homologies- a trait shared by two or more species through inheritance from a common ancestor Analogies- a trait shared by two or more species that is similar in function but unrelated evolutionary convergence WEEK 3 What is evolution and natural evolution working on?  Genetic data, decent with modification Processes  Mutation  Gene flow  Genetic drift Gregor Mendel (Austria 1822-1884)  Breeding experiments with pea plants  Traits in offspring are not passed solely by either parents o Traits are passed in small independent packages from both parents o We call these packages “genes” Mendel’s breeding program  Cross bred green peas with green peas o Offspring of any generation always had green peas  Cross bred yellow peas with green peas o Off spring plants (f1) bore green peas  Crossbred green offspring offspring (f1 generation) o Some of their offspring plants (f2 generation) o Ratio of green to yellow plants in f2 generation was always 3:1 Each observed trait derives from a package of information (gene) acquired by the individual at conception For each trait, an individual processes two genes: one from each parent  Homozygous state: for a given trait, individual receives the same; two matching genes  Heterozygous state: individual receives two different gene forms from parents. Green and yellow The whole set of different forms for a given gene is known as alleles  Mendel’s peas had alternative genes or alleles for green seeds and for yellow seeds  Sometimes the yellow allele was expressed (appeared in the plant)  Sometimes the green allele was expressed Dominant genes- always expressed in the individual who carries them such as green peas Recessive genes- overpowered by a dominant gene, if one is present and not expressed. Such as yellow peas  Recessive genes are expressed if they are homozygous (if no dominant gene is present)  Recessive genes are as likely to be passed to offspring as are dominant genes- even though their presence may be unknown to the observer Independent assortment During reproduction each individual (you) creates a gamete (egg or sperm) each consists of half of your genes (meiosis)  Probability of a gene passing on from your mother/ father is 50%  Dominant genes don’t have any dominance in this process; dominant genes don’t have any dominance in this process; recessive genes are equally likely  We can’t predict which gene will appear Ex: eye colour  Gene eye colour exists in two alleles or states o B dominant brown o b recessive blue  each parent passes on an allele in his/her gamete o offspring’s genetic makeup contains an allele from each parent o offspring’s outward appearance (phenotype) reflects the dominance the dominance of this gene pair o brown eyes BB, Bb, or bB o brown eyes bb only Genotype- all the genes in an individual The genotype represents our real genetic structure or DNA Phenotype- the visible individual  the expression of genetic dominance +  physical changes caused by events in the individual’s life The phenotype is what we actually see Genome- the entire range of alleles in a species; the gene pool Most physical traits represent complex associations of several different genes  gene complexes often include genes on completely different chromosomes  some genes can be co-dominant- blend together rather than dominating or submitting (hair colour)  sometimes, the nature of one gene determines the dominance or receissity of other Genes & DNA  DNA is a double helix  Genetic code is made up of four different basses  Adenine, guanine, thymine, and cytosine  AT and CG only  Group if three bases= Codon  Genes are a sequence of Codons, like sentences on a DNA string Chromosomes  Genes are organized in DNA and wound as strings within chromosomes o Chromosomes are paired o One comes from each parent o Matching locations on paired chromosomes are alleles of a single gene  46 chromsomes in all- 23 from each parent. o 22 autosomes, and 2 sex chromosomes Sex chromosomes  X – largest chromosomes in any mammalian cell. Lots of genetic information  Y—smallest chromosomes in any mammalian cell. Very little genetic information  Combination of sex chromosomes influence physical sex characteristics of individual o XX female o XY male What causes new traits?  Changes in genes  Changes in chromosomes  New complexes or combinations between genes Mutations (advantageous, deleterious, or neutral)  Random mechanical errors during DNA synthesis (sickle cell anemia)  chemical pollutants  cosmic nuclear radiation  insecticides Genetic Flow  if people split into Demes, separate breeding populations (due to social or environmental purposes) they will have undergone some natural selections  if two demes start to interbreed, then new genetic materials is introduced of flows into both gene pools  offspring will have new genetic combinations  gene flow acts to homogenize populations, preventing speciation Genetic drift  individual demes- Fission  founder effect  in a small population, there may be only a few individual who possess a particular gene o if these individuals don’t have offspring, that gene is lost from the gene pool of that population  in a small population, everyone is closely related in bred o mutations spread quickly through the population o easy for mutated form to become the “norm”  groups at opposite ends of the geographical territory occupied by the original species tend to become more and more different from each other  after a period of time, as genetic Cann et al. 1987 “eve”  Origin of the human species  Genetic studies at modern populations  mtDNA high mutation rate, follows female lineages  Variation was highest in Africa  Therefore it had mutated more often than other groups  Standard rate of mutation at 2 to 4% per million years  Africa is the origin of Homo sapiens  200000 years ago ( indicates how many years humans have been a species; came from Africa) Krings et al. 1997 Neantherhal DNA Same species?  mtDNA from the type specimen  compared to modern humans  outside the range of variation  mutations places divergence from Homo sapiens at 300 to 800000 years ago  therefore no admixture The Genographic Project  national geographic, IBM  ancient movements  mtDNA and Y chromosomes Green et al. 2010  decoding the Neanderthal genome 99.7% the same as humans  Larger sample size: Germany, Spain, Croatia and Russia  Populations outside of Africa share 1-4% DNA with Neanderthals  Probably interbred between 100 and 50kya in the Middle East , before Anatomically Modern Humans migrated east Reich et al. 2010  Finger bone from Denisova Dave, Siberia  Common origin with Neanderthals  Not involved with putative gene flow in Eurasians  Rather contributes 4-6% of genetic material into the genomes of modern Melanesians  Widespread during the late Plaistocene WEEK 4 Biological- bones, fossils Archaeological-Focus on changing culture Methods of studying the past Where- survey and sampling What- archaeological recovery When- relative and absolute dating How- theoretical approaches and environments and diet Who- mural context and osteological methods of identifying death, age, sex, etc Where did people live?  Archaeological sites- where people lived or carried out activities  Artefacts- objects made by people  Ecofacts- ecological debris such as animal bone (diet)  Features- nonportable remains graves or walls. Survey Morphological features- sources of water, clay, iron ore, firewood, etc Local and oral histories (ex: troy/ heinrich scleimann) Field survey  Surface walking  Surbsurface investigations  (ex: electrical resistivity survey[pump electricity into the ground to see if it interferes with anything and if the waves bounce back], proton magnetometry, ground penetrating radar, test pitting) Sampling Lab analysis- inform us on where to look and where not to look What materials did they leave behind  Careful excavation- spatial contents/ associations, proveince, assemblage. (careful labelling everything, record every change)  Sieved  Sorted When did human activities occur? Relative dating methods  Stratigraphy  Self dating  Seriation  Cross dating Absolute dating methods  Dendrochronology  Potassium-argon  Radiocarbon  OSL ( Optically Stimulated Luminessence) Dates in the past  Before Present (BP), before 1950 AD  Years ago (ya)  Thousands of years ago (kya)  Millions of years ago (mya)  Most “dates” are averaged over spans of many years Stratigraphy and law of superposition Soil is much older as you dig lower down (however not always the case ex: rats bring new soil into older soil by digging holes through the ground) Seriation- measuring changes through time due to changes in technology, raw materials, or styles of artefacts  Styles appear, gradually achieve some measure of acceptance, and then become outdated and gradually disappear  At the same time that style A is disappearing, style B is reaching its maximum extent and style C is just appearing Self dated objects  Objects which have actual dates on them (coins, tombstones, letters)  Objects which reflects events of known date (ex: basketball dates after the invention of the game in dec 1891)  Remember that people save souvenirs ( cannot date from a period earlier than the date; may date from a later period; restricted to the last 2000 years or less) Cross dating  Sites or strata with similar fossils, artefact styles or technologies are similar in age  Dates obtained by other methods at one site can be applied at other sites as well Dendochronology  Every year, every tree and bush grows outward by adding a layer of wood around its trunk. These annual layers are light in colour o In good years, the tree grows a lot and its light coloured layer is wide o In bad years, the three doesn’t grow as much and the light colour layer is narrow  When a tree is cut down, one can tell how old it is by counting the number of rings ( annual growth layers) from its edge to its centre o However, trees may be recycled or carved down on the sides when they are rotting Radiocarbon (14c) dating  All forms of life contain carbon o So does food that organisms eat every day o Living organisms constantly replenish 14 c atoms through food chain  Carbon exists in three forms or isotopes o Carbon 12 is common and stable (99%) o Carbon 13 is rare and stable (<1%) o Carbon 14 is very rare and radioactive  The proportion of 14C to 12C is constant throughout the living world o New 14C atoms are constantly created by action of cosmic rays in the upper atmosphere  When an organism dies, it stops eating and stops making in new carbon atoms o In the remains of the dead organisms are a small but measureable number of 14C atoms o These begins to decay slowly into 14N  14C atoms have a half life of 50 years  Pick a leaf today: estimate the number of carbon atoms present in the leaf by weight o Calculate the number of 14C atoms o If you re-measure that same leaf 5730 years from today, there will be exactly half as many 14 C atoms. Half will have reverted to stable 14N  By measuring the amount of carbon in a sample and comparing it with the number of 14C atoms still present (using mass spectrometer), physicists can calculate a range of time which includes the date of death of the organism  14C gives range of time; not a precise date o Looks like: date +/- deviation BP  Calibration curves o The farthest you can go back is 1200 o When the curve is bump, it is not constant o Two different curves for northern hemisphere and southern hemisphere. Another separate one for marine  Only valid from 60 000-50 000 years ago because it was running out of 14C in 12000 years ago  14C : 12C (12C is constant) 3 : 10 1: 1 Potassium-Argon (K-Ar)  Potassium 40 (radioactive solid) decays into Argon 40 (inert cas)  When a volcano erups, the hot lava releases all gasses includes all gasses including Argon  This all Argon 40 found in a lump of cooling lava is the product of radioactive decay of Potassium 40 in the original lava  K40 half-life is 1.3 billion years ago  100 000 to 200 000 years ago 30 million years old Fossil (therefore, fossil is in between 30 million and 35 million years old) 35 million years old Osl: Optically Stimulated Luminescen  As opposed to organic materials or lava, OSL is used to date quartz crystals  When buried quartz crystals absorb radiation from surrounding rocks (crystal lattice)  Optically stimulate the crystals and measure the amount of radiation emitted  Know how long the quartz crystals was buried, or at least the last time it was exposed to sunlight  (Trapping electrons in its crystal if not in light. If you put it under light again, it will release electrons and you can calculate how many there are  A few hundred years old to 100 000 years old Technology Direct historical approach- assumes extends into present (does not tell function) Enthrographic analogy- living a similar lifestyle Experimentation- replication studies, raw materials; use wear, materials analysis (ex: how and arrow, spears) Environment  Dendochronology- rainfall patterns  Oxygen isotopes- temperatures (temperature changes throughout the years)  Palynology- vegetation (how they cut up meat, hierarchy; how they were consuming it, eating it efficiently. Social idealogy on what they decide to eat)  Faunal remains- local ecology Take samples from herbivores to see what type of grass they are eating All wild plants are C3 plants Burial context  Simple flex burial with no grave goods  Sacrifice (bog bodies?)  Elaborate ritualized burial Human osteology  Identify the element  Side, end  Proportion Sex  Different bone structure  Numerous traits of the skull and pelvis  Overall robusticity  Can have both traits Age at death  Dentition; young- eruption rates, old- wear rates  Epiphyseal fusion- when your bones fuse into a solid bone structure into adult hood.  Cranial suture closure; accuracy is not great; for older individuals  Sterna rib ends  Articular surfaces of the pelvis Pathologies  Osteoporosis  Healed breaks  Enamel hypoplasia  Harris lines(lines show growth arrest in teeth)  Exotics such as cancers and syphilis (syphilis moves to the brain, joins flaring, infection from the inside of the bone flaring outward) Behaviours  Long arm rubusticity (you can tell what activities they do.) o Spear users vs bow and arrow o Male and female differences  Habitual squatting o Versus kneeling etc. WEEK 7 Primate tree- shows Cladistics characteristics (genetic similarities) Hominoids- greater and lesser apes  Tailless  2:1:2:3 dental formula  Large bodies  Complex social behaviours  Vision  Mostly quadrapedal  Apes  Aboreal  Humans (Homo), Chimpanzees and Bonobos  Some tail use (Pan), Gorillas, Orangutans (Pongo) and Gibbon  Ability to rotate elbows (because we are (hylobates) designed to hang on trees)  Y-5 Cusp in the molar Hominins- humans, pan & ancestors  gorillas are not hominins  Genetic studies 5-8 MYA  can be hominins and hominoids; but not all  Share 98% of DNA hominoids are hominins  Cooling and drying event, retreat of rain forests  Homo+Pan+ ancestors of both Bipeds- locomotion of FM, angle of knee, pelvis morphology, foot morphology, curvature of spine Typically find multitude of primitive and derived traits together Australopithecus/ paranthropus  5-1 mya in east (ground split open) and south afraica (mining industry)  +chad (erosion is finally showing signs of fossils)- a baherlahazali  Bipedal when on the ground  Apelike brain  Robust forms sometimes called parathropus  Lumpers vs. Splitters a. anamensis  From 5 mya  East Africa  Ape like dentition  Small front teeth  Large back teeth  Brain 300 cc’s  U-shaped a. behrelghazali  Opening up dental arcade a.afarensis  Lucy, first most complete skeleton  Hominin because of bipedal and angled knee  Forward projecting face  Pinched eyes (brain not fully developed) Gracile Australopithecines  3.9 to 2mya in east Africa  Back then, had trouble dating because lack of volcanic ash  3.5 to 2.3 mya in south Africa  Erect bipeds, about 1-1.5m in strature  Apelike skull morphology but larger brain  Teeth for chewing food in a hominin fashion  Earlier fossils show dental features similar to some late Miocene apes; later South African fossils do not  Sexually dimorphic, in body size and canine tooth size Taung child- a. africanus  Early 19 hundreds, found in a mine in south africa  Always bipedal  Small brain  Since its a child, shows the development stages (baby teeth)  Morphology of brain and how the lobes form from the species Mrs Ples?- a. Africanus  Adult form of taung child (also from south Africa)  Small, lack big teeth Robust australopithecines South Africa  1.8 to 1 mya  Thick bones for their size, with prominent muscle markings  Much bigger teeth; larger face; changes to deal with large teeth  Sagittal crest, for large temporal mucles ( more evident in males)- example of convergent evolution in gorillas and humans  p. Robustus- broken pieces glude back together East Africa  2.5 to 1.3 million years ago  More massive skulls and larger body size than south African relatives  Enormous molars, premolars, mandible, and palate  P. aethiopicus (black skull)- Wide flaring cheekbones  A. Garhi- large dentition with the association of robust  Dear boy- p. Boisei- assoiated with various tools, big teeth Humans-> flat face, small teeth but thick enamel Apes-> forward face, big teeth but thin enamel Gracile- robust relationships  East African robust forms likely evolved from earlier gracile forms in east Africa  In south Africa the robust were either an offshoot of the east African lineage, or convergent evolution from a south African ancestors Robust-homo relationship  They were living in the same planet, in the same region for over 1.5 million years  Law of competitive exclusion- such complete different diets, that they were not interbreeding with each other, no competition  Robust australopitheciunes have evolved into highly efficient and specalzied consumers of plant food  Many anthropologists believe this allowed early homo and robust australiopithecines co-exist for 1.5 million years because they aboid competition for the same ecological niche Australopithecines Two disputable facts 1. Retention of some forms of adaptation to aboreal life 2. Evolution of erect bipedal position long before acquiring highly enlarged brain Timeline: australopithecine ancestors Sahelanthropus tchadensis  6-7 mya in chad  Environment lakes and rivers, forested and wooded grasslands  Small teth includes canines, flat face, thick enamel, less prognathic than later australopithecines, large brow ridges, no honing premolar, FM slightly beneath skull (look similar to humans)  Habitual, still able to walk on ground but prefer trees Orrorin tugensis  5.8-6 mya in northern Kenya  Environmental- mixed woodland savanna  Thick enamel, large ape-like incisors and canines, large head and large neck on femur  FM is a little more forward Ardipithicus kadabba  5.8-5.2 in awash valley, Ethiopia  Environment- forest  Ape-like honing premolar, but thick enamel, and a single tone bone suggest bipedalism  Starting to develop socially (pair bonding); developing toward humans  Canine shows slow equality between male and female Ardipithecus ramidus  Before October 2, 2009  4.4 mya in awash valley, Ethiopia  Environment forest  Ape-like trait; thinner enamel  In between trait: canines and molars larger than humans but smaller than apes  Human like: lack honing complex, FM toward at a base of skull Ardi  Ardi after oct 2  Less sexual dimorphic  Opposable big toe  Grasping hand  Femoral angle  FM  Bipedal on land but still aboreal Australopithecine predecessors Relationships to hominins  Homonins evolved from late Miocene apes, becoming distinct about 5 mya  More than one bipedal model emerged from this new primate niche; one of them was Australopithecus  Are any of these predecessors encestral to the australopithecines or the chimpanzees, or did they become extinct?  Pattern in early hominin evolution has been shot periods of change, marked by prolonged periods of stasis Environmental, diet, and australopithecine origins Major climatic changes in the late Miocene  Drying of the Mediterranean sea  Breaking up of forests  Creation of a mosaic environment with more open areas, interspersed with forest patches Effect in climate change Change in diet  Less tree food  More open ground foraging (ex: seeds, grass, roots) Change in dentition  Smaller canine teeth (but thicker)  Male canines became as small as those of females Human bipedalism Disadvantages  more visable to preditors  exposes soft underbelly  interferes with ability to change direction instantly while running  not a fast locomotion method  not able to see as a as far as we could on trees in the vast different  frequent lower back problems and circulatory problems  serious impediment if one leg is injured All of these disadvantages placed our early ancestors at risk Advantages  free hands (idea of males gathering and transporting food to females, elderly, sick)  more efficient, save energy (travel further)  see across the grasses  heat regulated better; able to cope with heat stress out in the open  much more economical than quadrupedal locomotion at walking speed  the causes of bipedalism are likely to be multiple  better food = bigger brains Australopithecines and tools  no evidence of tool making clearly associated with australopithecines, although hands of later australopithcines were capable  Could australopithecus could have been a tool user and maker of simple tools?  They could have used wooden tools, stones, animal bones WEEK 8 It is important to have the development of language in the work of culture because we must have a way to communicate with each other Hominid- bipedal 5-8 million years ago was when we split from chimpanzees Pleistocene (the great ice age) Africanus austropithilocines (apes walking on two legs, small brain) Early homo habilias is around at the same time as the austropithilcines and australiopithecus robustus Extreme dry and cooling= multiple species at the same time Darwin and Africa  Did not want to include humans in the story  Wrote separate book, “on the decent of man” describing how humans evolved; we must look in Africa not Europe because we look more like the species (gorillas and chimps) in Africa than the species (orangatangs) in Asia, etc. Dubois and java man  Saw more similarities with orangatang  Went to Indonesia, island of java  You can tell from the skull cap that the individual has a very big brain (unlike Lucy who has a pinched in forehead; shows that brain has expanded)  Head is angled in for bipedality (to centre the body)  Named it java man (homo erectus) Europe and Piltdown man Middle two= Feemer (leg bone) and calvarian (skull cap).  Piltdown man- Two amateur archaeologists dug around Europe Not found together, same river meters apart [from java]. and found a full skull (most scientific hoax that Europe was the Bottom right= Piltdown man start of human evolution; was Africa). The reason that it looked like a human skull was because it is but the jaw was replaced by Top right= tongue child an orangatang. The found a trunk of all the tools they would use to make it fake. They were trying to pick up fluorine in the skeleton and the two didn’t match.  Tongue child- they thought that it was a baboon skull. It is a child skull so it was still developing, you can see the folds of the brain and what was developing at what time. It had the brain of an ape, facial projection of ape, and teeth of an ape but the brain of a species in our linage. Oluvai Gorge and early homo  Leaky’s lous and mary  7 below bed (2.1-1.7 MAYA)  Dear boy (OH 5) associated with tools  Beds I and II- homo habilis  In between form of australopithecines and homo erectus  Studies of hand bones- precision grip and true handy man Left= twiggy; lacks sagital crest, smaller back teeth (more human like), less projecting face, more advanced and similar to humans Right= dear boy Olduvai early Homo compared to Australopithecines  Reduced size of back teeth- but still capable of dealing with rough foods (nuts)  Anterior teeth larger  More generalized diet and more human like  No sagittal crests  Larger brains-> 560-650cc, required meat to sustain  Based on teeth and skull more human like There is still a debate about whether the homo habilias should be a part of the homo species Left= twiggy; smaller brain than homo erectus Right= homo erectus; bigger brain Oldauvi early Homo compared to Homo erectus  Much smaller brain  Maintains ape body proportions of long arms and short legs  Length of arms suggests arboreal lifestyle  More primitive than australopithecines Early homo in south Africa Swartkrans  Member 1- P.robustus  Members 1&2 1.5 MYA, -P.robus and early homo  Have different eating patterns Sterkfontein  Member 5 1.5-2 MYA, -P.robustus, early homo and many stone tools  Some researchers believe that they are actually homo erectus others think a, africanus? Similar skull Right= Stw 53; forward forehead Who is early Homo? Two species One species or two? Left= Homo habilis; smaller, ape-like projection Right= Homo rudolfensis; more gracile looking, bigger, flatter From Koobi fora-> thought that they were males and females; however it doesn’t make sense for the female to be more rugged than the male. With more information, they realize that they are different species Homo rudolfensis  More human limbs than homo habilis  Can only be found in South Africa  More human like body proportions  Still has large face, thick teeth and thick jaw, not so human like Would the real ancestor stand up  If they were in some ways more primitive than australopithecines? Who was the ancestor of homo erectus? –A. Garhi  A.garhi (Ethiopia) has more human like body proportions- longer legs  Cut marked bones implies tools use and meat eating Homo erectus: first true homo?  Truly larger brains  Advanced tool use  Longer legs than arms  Human like teeth and jaws  Seen soon after homo habilis little time to evolve large brain Oldewan industry  First at olduvai gorge  7m below Bed I (2.1-1.7 MYA)  Early Homo, P, Boisei, Homo erectus  Oldest are 2.5 MYA from Hadar  Microscopic wear patterns show they were used for cutting grasses, meat and wood Simile tool technology  Hard hammer and direct percussion industry  Least effort strategy to produce sharp edges  Originally thought-core cools choppers, scrapers  How flakes as sharp edges too  People thought that the stone was the tool and flakes were waste Hard hammer percussion Primates and tool use  Thai forest, ivory coast  Hammer and anvil techniques used to crack open hard nuts  Offspring learn from mothers  Delimited distribution not related to environment (ie. Culture) Lithic Technology  So precise that shows skill and technique, and intent  Hard hammer percussion  Flakes (shows intent o Ventral face o Bulb of percussion -Force so extreme when stone is struck that it creates a bulb o Dorsal face o Dorsal scars  Cores o Negative flake scars Oldowan typology  Assumed that it was just a chopper tool but actually use more than that  Discoids  Polyhedrons (making shapes and sculpting spheres; could be used as slingshots)  Flakes (using it to cut things)  Scrapers (scrape hides; animals skins) The earliest stone tools- 2.5 mya Gona (Hadar), Ethiopia Lokalalei (turkana), Kenya  2.5 mya  2.3 mya  Simple technology  Up to 30 flakes removed from single core  Least effort strategy for produce sharp edges  Consistent strategy  Not “simple” Tool function  Cut marks on bone o Hadar, ehiopia 2.5 mya o Bouri, middle awash, Ethiopia (a. Ghari) o FLK North, Olduvai Gorge 1.9-1.7 mya  Marrow extraction  Scavenger or hunger? (primarily to get marrow but is there other reasons?) The developed Oldowan  “proto” bifaces (handaxes) made on cobbles  Higher occurrence or spherioids  1.6-1.2 mya  A sort of precursor to later archelean industries Benefits  Excellent method to obtain meat on a consistent basis  New meat = more protein= bigger brains and more energy  Teeth getting smaller and we cannot shred meat without the help of tools  Dentition of Australopithecines and Homo are not well suited to eating meat (ex: small canines) Why that point in time?  Had to eat more meat because vegetation was getting scarce  Probably a result of adaptation to an environment changing from forest to grassland, 3-2 mya Hunting or scavenging?  Olduvai floor  Mary leakey- base camp at lake bed  Binford- elements present indicate scavenging instead of hunting (collecting the bones with little meat on it)  Shipman- cut marks vs. Carnivore gnaw marks (carnivore marks were first and then cut marks were after that) Original study Cat in the Human cradle  Anatomy suggests both homo habilis and A. Afarensis were better than us at climbing trees and suspending  South African leopards practice “tree- catching”  The collection of bones at olduvai gorge than could explained by both ground scavenging of leopard “tree kills” by homo habilis Hominid Brain and Meat Consumption  Increase in brain size correlates with appearance of meat in the hominin diet  The human brain consumes more than twice the energy of the brains of nonhuman primates The earliest signs of tools and culture  Problem solving- the use of stone tools to butcher to prepare meat  Increased muscle movement, precision, (this part of your brain also associated with language) 
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