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Lecture 9

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Mary Silcox

ANTA01 – Lecture 9 November 19, 2012  C.J. Thomsen – creator of the ages…  Upper Paleolithic o Started around 50 000 years ago  More refined stone tools, especially blades o Twice as long as wide… maximizes the cutting edge  Blades are made from indirect percussion  Mass-production o Oldest blade tools from the Baringo Basin, Kenya between 509 000 and 543 000 year old o Chatelperronian tool industry (European….)  Associated with latest Neandertals  Added blades and bone tool to Mousterian o Aurignacian tool industry  ~40 000 to 27 000 years ago  Associated with early anatomically modern humans in Europe  Even more blade tools and bone use than in the Chatelperronian  Suggested that the Neandartals and anatomically modern humans exchanged ideas o Gravettian (27 000 to 21 000 years ago)  Smaller blades and denticulate  first time replacing parts  denticulate tool was like the serrated knife o Solutrean (21 000 – 18000 years ago)  Exquisite leaf-shaped projectile points  Very finely bifacilly flaked and very thin  Willow leaf point  Broken laurel leaf point  Laurel leaf points  These are very hard to make; the maker needed a lot of control o Magdalenian tools (17000 to 11000 years ago)  Very small microblades (smaller than gravettian)  Replacement parts  Increased use of non-stone raw material  Increased use of raw materials other than stone o Magdalenian – using ivory, bone, and antler tools… they made needles (clothing)…  Atle-atle – helps throw spears farther  A more varied diet o Eating more plants… fishing…  Larger more permanent habitations sites and dwellings  Long distances trade of raw materials o Obsidian – a volcanic glass that is easy to create stone tools… there is evidence that there was a trade from 500 km  Can be sharper than a silver blade  Items of personal adornment o Magdalenian necklace…  Increasingly elaborate burials o Sungir (24 000 years ago)  Carved bracelets, surround by ivory beads,  Creation of art o Oldest art: scratches on a piece of ochre from Blombos Cave, S. Africa (73 000 years old) o Ivory plaque from Mal’ta Siberia (~18 000 years ago) art, calendar, or both? The central: 243 (winter) pits and outside one have 122 (summer) pits each, which comes up to 365. o Venus of Willendorf (~25000 years old)  Thought to symbolize fertility o Cave paintings  Oldest in Europe: 40 800 years ago in Spain…  Chauvet – 35 000 -32 000 years ago  Cave bear bones as well as a painting
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