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Lecture 10

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Mary Silcox

ANTA01 – Lecture 10 November 26, 2012  Pleistone – also known as the “Ice age”; stretched from 1.8 my to 10 000 ya  Holocene – about 10 000 ya and continuing to the present  Mesolithic o At the end of the Pleisocene and before the beginning of the Agricultural revolution o Evidence of eating fish… in the Neolithic there is evidence of fish hooks o Tools: microliths and some ground stone tools  New method of making tools: grinding the rock away  Neolithic o Date perhaps 12 000 years ago but this varies from place to place o Major cultural changes  Production of polished stone tools (they don’t have flake scars… created by grinding… lasts longer…  Pottery (different cultures have different forms of pottery… uses cross-dating… )  Agriculture  Recognizing agricultural activity in the archaeological record o Primarily between about 12 000 and 8000 years ago o Tool types – requires material structure… for example, is used for cutting grains… o Settlement patterns – the distribution of archaeological sites and the analysis of their functions in relation to each other and to features of the environment… sedentism o Distinctive features of domesticated animals (artificial selection… the firs domesticated animal around 40 000 – 15 000 ya; Canis lupis)  Pathological changes… as we were domesticating animals, we were domesticating ourselves…  Population characteristics…  Geographic distribution… exotic, an animal that is not from a particular area… o Distinctive features of domesticated plants  Geographic distribution…  Seed size changes… flotation of soil (organic materials tend to float while the ones that you don’t want sinks to the bottom)… increased size of seeds, such as the carbonized marsh elder seeds  Changed in seed coat (testa) thickness – thick seed coats delays germination…  Changes in seed dispersal mechanisms  Pre-agriculture o Not every hunt is successful… food shortages… o Pre-agriculture people… old people could not be supported…  Ju/’hoansi gathering… plants account about 2/3 of their caloric intake… gathering was more important… males do most of the hunting and females gather the food.  Key resource: Mongongo nuts – rich in protein an
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